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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:58
European neuroborreliosis: quality of life 30 months after treatment.
Acta Neurol Scand Feb 2011;

Department of Neurology, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway Department of Neurology, Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Clinic of Rehabilitation, Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway.



Eikeland R, Mygland Å, Herlofson K, Ljøstad U. European neuroborreliosis: quality of life 30 months after treatment. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01482.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives -  The prognosis after Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is debated. The aim of this study was to assess health-related Quality of Life (QoL) and neurological symptoms 30 months after treatment in European patients with LNB. Materials and methods -  In a prospective case-control designed study, we investigated 50 well-characterized patients with LNB who had participated in a treatment trial for LNB 30 months earlier and 50 matched control persons with the health QoL questionnaire Short-Form 36 (SF-36), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS), and the Mini Mental State (MMS). Clinical and demographic data were collected by semi-structured interviews and clinical neurological examination. Results -  Lyme neuroborreliosis-treated patients scored lower than control persons in the SF-36 domains physical component summary (PCS) (44 vs 51 P < 0.001) and mental component summary (MCS) (49 vs 54 P = 0.010). They also scored lower than control persons in all the SF-36 subscales, except for bodily pain, and on FSS (3.5 vs 2.1 P < 0.001), but not on MMS (28 vs 29 P = 0.106). There was a difference in MADRS (3.1 vs 0. 8 P = 0.003) and SAS (13 vs 11 P = 0.016), but the scores were low in both groups. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom among LNB-treated patients (50%). Patients who reported complete recovery (56%) after LNB had similar QoL scores as the controls. Conclusion -  European persons treated for LNB have poorer health-related QoL and have more fatigue than persons without LNB

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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:56
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome following Lyme disease.

Cardiol J 2011; 18(1) :63-6



Background: A subgroup of patients suffering from Lyme disease (LD) may initially respond to antibiotics only to later develop a syndrome of fatigue, joint pain and cognitive dysfunction referred to as 'post treatment LD syndrome'. We report on a series of patients who developed autonomic dysfunction in the form of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Methods: All of the patients in this report had suffered from LD in the past and were successfully treated with antibiotics. All patients were apparently well, until years later when they presented with fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance. These patients were diagnosed with POTS on the basis of clinical features and results of the tilt table (HUTT) testing. Results: Five patients (all women), aged 22-44 years, were identified for inclusion in this study. These patients developed symptoms of fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, orthostatic palpitations and either near syncope or frank syncope. The debilitating nature of these symptoms had resulted in lost of the employment or inability to attend school. Three patients were also suffering from migraine, two from anxiety and depression and one from hypertension. All patients demonstrated a good response to the employed treatment. Four of the five were able to engage in their activities of daily living and either resumed employment or returned to school. Conclusions: In an appropriate clinical setting, evaluation for POTS in patients suffering from post LD syndrome may lead to early recognition and treatment, with subsequent improvement in symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 1: 63-66).

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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:49
CXCL13 chemokine in pediatric and adult neuroborreliosis.

Acta Neurol Scand Feb 2011;

Department of Dermatology Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation Department of General Pediatrics Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.



Wutte N, Berghold A, Löffler S, Zenz W, Daghofer E, Krainberger I, Kleinert G, Aberer E. CXCL13 chemokine in pediatric and adult neuroborreliosis. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01477.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives -  Diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB) depends on the proof of intrathecal antibody production against Borrelia burgdorferi. CXCL13 has been seen to be elevated early in NB, before antibody production has started. In this study, we determined the diagnostic role of the CXCL13 chemokine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum for the first time in pediatric NB patients as well as in adults, compared to controls and blood donors (BD). Material and methods -  CXCL13 levels were measured in CSF and serum of 33 children and 42 adult patients. Serum CXCL13 was measured in 300 BD. Results -  CSF CXCL13 levels were significantly elevated in definite and probable acute NB in children and adults compared to seropositive and seronegative neurological controls (P < 0.001). Serum CXCL13 levels showed great fluctuations and were not significantly elevated in NB patients. Conclusions -  Our study suggests that CSF CXCL13 can be used as a diagnostic marker for NB in children as well. In contrast, CXCL13 serum levels show great variance even in the healthy population and are not indicative of active NB

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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:45
Influence of abiotic and environmental factors on the density and infection prevalence of Ixodes pacificus (Acari:Ixodidae) with Borrelia burgdorferi.

J Med Entomol Jan 2011; 48(1) :20-8

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 3060 VLSB, Berkeley CA 94720-3140, USA. swei@berkeley.edu




The abiotic and biotic factors that govern the spatial distribution of Lyme disease vectors are poorly understood. This study addressed the influence of abiotic and biotic environmental variables on Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari:Ixodidae) nymphs, because it is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwaldt & Brenner in the far-western United States. Three metrics of Lyme disease risk were evaluated: the density of nymphs, the density of infected nymphs, and the nymphal infection prevalence. This study sampled randomly located plots in oak (Quercus spp.) woodland habitat in Sonoma County, CA. Each plot was drag-sampled for nymphal ticks and tested for B. burgdorferi infection. Path analysis was used to evaluate the direct and indirect relationship between topographic, forest structure and microclimatic variables on ticks. Significant negative correlations were found between maximum temperature in the dry season and the density of infected ticks in 2006 and tick density in 2007, but we did not find a significant relationship with nymphal infection prevalence in either year. Tick density and infected tick density had an indirect, positive correlation with elevation, mediated through temperature. This study found that in certain years but not others, temperature maxima in the dry season may constrain the density and density of infected I. pacificus nymphs. In other years, biotic or stochastic factors may play a more important role in determining tick density

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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:42
BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism.

PLoS Pathog 2011; 7(2) :e1001272

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America.




In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ(54) (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σ(S) (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ(54)-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ(54)-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ(54)-dependent gene regulation in bacteria

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3 mars 2011 4 03 /03 /mars /2011 18:37
Is Tayside becoming a Scottish hotspot for Lyme borreliosis?

J R Coll Physicians Edinb Mar 2011; 41(1) :5-8

Medical Microbiology Department, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. gillian.slack@nhs.net.



The epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in Tayside was studied and compared with Highland (an area of high endemicity) and the rest of Scotland. From April 2001 to March 2008 the incidence of LB in Tayside rose from an estimated 2.57 to 5.84 per 100,000 population. In 2008/09 the incidence of LB in Tayside increased further to an estimated 13.85 per 100,000 population. This rise was significant and, although numerically less than that in Highland (37.24 to 49.69 per 100,000 population), it was proportionally much larger (137% vs 33%) and confirmed that LB in Tayside has diverged from that in non-endemic Scottish regions. The dramatic rise of LB in Tayside cannot be accounted for by changes in laboratory protocol or changes in the number or demographics of patients tested. However, changes in climatic conditions and alterations in clinical presentations may have contributed to this significant rise

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2 mars 2011 3 02 /03 /mars /2011 10:43

Potential link between immunity, schizophrenia revealed

 2011-02-28 14:50:00
Immunogenicity Screening In silico, In vitro, In vivo assays www.epivax.com


A new study from UC Davis has indicated that the number of connections between nerve cells in the brain can be regulated by an immune system molecule.

The research has also revealed a potential link between immunity, infectious disease and conditions such as schizophrenia or autism.

Schizophrenia, autism and other disorders are associated with changes in connectivity in the brain, said Kimberley McAllister, associate professor in the Center for Neuroscience and Departments of Neurology and Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior at UC Davis. Those changes affect the ability of the brain to process information correctly.

"Certain immune genes and immune dysregulation have also been associated with autism and schizophrenia, and the immune molecules that we study in brain development could be a pathway that contributes to that altered connectivity," said McAllister.

The study does not show a direct link between immune responses and autism, but rather reveals a molecular pathway through which a peripheral immune response or particular genetic profile could alter early brain development, said McAllister.

The researchers looked at a protein called Major Histocompatibility Complex type 1 (MHC type I). In both rodents and humans, these proteins vary between individuals, and allow the immune system to distinguish between 'self' and 'non-self.' They play a role, for example, in rejecting transplanted organs and in defending against cancer and virus infections.

In this and another recently published study, McAllister's group found that MHC type I molecules are present on young brain cells during early postnatal development. To test their function, they studied mice lacking MHC type I on the surface of neurons, as well as isolated neurons from mice and rats with altered levels of MHC type I.

They found that when the density of these molecules on the surface of a brain cell goes up, the number of connections, or synapses, it has with neighboring brain cells goes down. The reverse was also true: decreased MHC expression increased synaptic connections.

"We have now found that there is another role for MHC type I in establishing connections during early postnatal development of the brain," said McAllister.

The report has been published in the journal Nature Neuroscience. (ANI)

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28 février 2011 1 28 /02 /février /2011 11:15

The Borreliose Centrum Augsburg


Tel. +49 (0) 821 455 471-0



The Borreliose Centrum Augsburg (BCA) is a medical facility where Tick-borne Diseases (infections) are treated with a holistic therapy approach.  The center offers diagnostic, laboratory and therapy .  Besides Lyme Disease and Co-infections, we are also specialised in so called Multi System Illnesses, which often result in ailments and symptoms such as inflammation and severe immune-system deficits (including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Morgellons Disease).

We are very concerned about the general recognition of"chronic Lyme disease" as a real illness.  Unfortunately, many medical institutions/organisations and health insurance companies negate that tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, cause severe ailments and symptoms during the acute state, i.e. immediately or several weeks after the tick bite, but also years after the bite in case of insufficient treatment.

It is also often misjudged that besides Borrelia bacteria, so called co-infections (e.g. Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, etc.), can also lead to similar symptoms.  Many doctors in Germany and in other parts of the world underestimate the danger and risks associated with these infectious pathogens.  These infections particularly weaken the immune defense of patients. 

You can find more information about the controversy of chronic Lyme disease, which is primarily taken place between two American organisations, in "FAQs" under point 4.

But:  not everything is chronic Lyme disease!  There are many illnesses that show similar symptoms and ailments.  Due to this, the diagnostic is very complex and needs a differential diagnosis (differentiating between many different disease patterns) in order to exclude certain diseases or confirm them (Rheumatic diseases and/or Auto-immune Diseases).



Holistic Approach to Therapy (e.g. in cases of chronic Lyme disease – overview)

Basis: Treatment with antibiotics (e.g. “Augsburg Scheme” for several weeks/months – according to the guidelines of ILADS and the recommendations of the German Borreliosis Society)

+ supporting “Accompanying therapies”, such as 


               Milieu corrections (incl. deacidification & detoxificatio

               Change of Diet/Nutrition (alkaline and anti-inflammatory)

               Selected dietary supplements

               Electro Therapies 

+ "Change of life style“ (measures of self-help that are necessary and easy to adopt for the patient)




The BCA cooperates with doctors (local, regional, national, international) and supports them as well as their patients with laboratory diagnostic for tick-borne diseases and possible co-infections, as well as successfull therapy implementation (incl. information about "accompanying therapies", change of diet, dietary supplements & natural remedies, "self-help", etc.).

We expect that doctors specialised in Lyme disease (incl. your family doctor) take you and your illness serious and listen to you.  We are aware that Lyme disease is often misjudged and chronically ill patients are classified as mentally instable or depressive.

We believe doctors should be responsible for providing all medical services (diagnosis & therapy).

Diagnostic:  Doctors perform a detailed anamnesis and induce special tests (blood analysis) to diagnose Borrelia bacteria and co-infections. They are experienced in comparing Lyme-disease with other, similar disease patterns (differential diagnosis).

Therapies:  Doctors that we support are specialised in chronically ill patients (long-term patients). They have specific knowledge of pain therapy as well as in „mental coaching“.  They diagnose and treat holistically according to the international guidelines of ILADS (International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, USA - www.ilads.org) and the recommendations of the German Borreliosis Society (Deutsche Borreliose Gesellschaft e.V.).

The main aim is the "detection" and "elimination" of Borrelia and possible other co-infections (bacteria and viruses).  This is a complex matter in case of chronic Lyme disease and usually requires a long-term antibiotic treatment with high dosed antibiotics over several months.  We are happy to send you detailed information about the treatment, if your GP is unsure about such therapies.  Under "News" and question 4 of the FAQs you will find specific articles to download.

In case of chronic infectious diseases, which are often responsible for ailments and pain, the importance of treating chronic inflammation is often underestimated.  Chronic inflammation are responsible for ailments and pain in most cases.  It is essential to restore the weakened immune system and reactivate it.  From our experience accompanying therapies are necessary in addition to the antibiotic treatment.  You can find further information under "Therapies".

Note:  Patients who do not wish to undergo an antibiotic treatment, can also get information about alternative therapy plans (e.g. based on photon-therapy in combination with natural remedies and accompanying therapies).

From our experience we can say that chronic Lyme disease can be successfully treated in many cases, only in very few cases an improvement of symptoms cannot be accomplished.  A long-term antibiotic treatment is a "must" in most cases.  With the help of supporting "accompanying therapies" and "self-help" measures (Link) patients can improve the effectiveness of the medication (usually antibiotics), strengthen the immune system and effectively eliminate Borrelia and co-infections.

For chronically ill and long-term patients we recommend the "Lyme Compact Treatment" for 5 days or longer, which is offered in the Medical Partnership Dr. C. Nicolaus & Dr. A. Schwarzbach.  The therapists support and coach you in all aspects of necessary lifestyle changes (mental/exercise/nutrition). If you cannot spare the time for a long term treatment at the BCA, we will introduce you to the therapies and will instruct your attending doctor at home to continue the treatment.


The aim of the holistic therapy is to help patients become symptom-free faster and integrate again into their private and professional surroundings. We want you to regain the belief for a future without Lyme disease.








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26 février 2011 6 26 /02 /février /2011 11:07

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;65(6):601-8. Epub 2009 Jan 27.

Effects of allicin on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activity in healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes.

Yang LJFan LLiu ZQMao YMGuo DLiu LHTan ZRPeng LHan CTHu DLWang DZhou HH.

Pharmacogenetics Research Institute, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, People's Republic of China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between allicin and omeprazole and to observe the effects of allicin on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activity in healthy Chinese male volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes.

METHODS: Eighteen subjects (six CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*1, four CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*2, two CYP2C19*1/ CYP2C19*3, and six CYP2C19*2/ CYP2C19*2) were enrolled in a two-phase randomized crossover trial. In each phase, all subjects received placebo or a 180 mg allicin capsule once daily for 14 consecutive days. The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole (20 mg orally on day 15) was determined for up to 12 h following administration by high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS: In carriers of the CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*1 and CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*2 or *3 genotype, allicin treatment increased the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of omeprazole by 49.7 +/- 7.2 (p < 0.001) and 54.2 +/- 9.2% (p < 0.001), and increased the area under the plasma time-concentration curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of omeprazole by 48.1 +/- 9.0 (p = 0.001) and 73.6 +/- 26.7% (p < 0.001), respectively. The ratio of AUC(0-infinity) of 5-hydroxyomeprazole to omeprazole (a marker for CYP2C19 activity) decreased significantly (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, no pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly changed by allicin in CYP2C19*2/CYP2C19*2. The C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) of omeprazole sulfone were unchanged in all three genotypes.

CONCLUSIONS: Allicin reduced the metabolism of omeprazole by inhibiting CYP2C19 activity in individuals with the CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*1 and CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*2 or *3 genotypes, but not in those with the CYP2C19*2/ CYP2C19*2 genotype. Allicin did not significantly affect the activity of CYP3A4 in all subjects.

PMID: 19172254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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26 février 2011 6 26 /02 /février /2011 11:01

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Jun;49(6):538-51.

Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats.

Butt MSSultan MTButt MSIqbal J.

National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. drmsbutt@yahoo.com

Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential.

Recent advancements in the field of immunonutrition, physiology, and pharmacology further explored its importance as a functional food against various pathologies.

Extensive research work has been carried out on the health promoting properties of garlic, often referred to its sulfur containing metabolites i.e. allicin and its derivatives. Garlic in its preparations are effective against health risks and even used as dietary supplements such as age garlic extract (AGE) and garlic oil etc.

Its components/formulations can scavenge free radicals and protect membranes from damage and maintains cell integrity.

It also provides cardiovascular protection mediated by lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation thus providing protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders.

Besides this, it possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that are interesting in chemopreventive interventions.

Several mechanisms have been reviewed in this context like activation of detoxification phase-I and II enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reducing DNA damage etc.

Garlic could be useful in preventing the suppression of immune response associated with increased risk of malignancy as it stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, macrophage phagocytosis, stimulates the release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and enhances natural killer cells.

In this paper much emphasis has been placed on garlic's ability to ameliorate oxidative stress, core role in cardiovascular cure,


chemopreventive strategies, and indeed its prospective as immune booster.

PMID: 19484634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Med Hypotheses. 2008 Dec;71(6):897-9. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

A new therapeutic candidate for oral aphthous ulcer: Allicin.

Jiang XWHu JMian FI.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, China.

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is the most common ulcer of oral non-keratinized mucosa, but the treatment is always limited at present. Considering the multifactorial etiology of RAU, a novel therapeutic agent with multi-bioactivties should be presented. Garlic has been recognized as a favorable natural medicine against a large number of pathologic conditions. The major component of garlic is allicin, which could effectively decrease inflammatory factors secretion, reduce the migration of neutrophils, inhibit bacterium and virus, antagonize oxidation and regulate immunity. By these bioactivities of anti-inflammation, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidation and immunomodulation, the allicin may be an effective therapeutic candidate to control the pain, promote ulcer healing and prevent the recurrence of RAU.

PMID: 18771860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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