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12 mars 2011 6 12 /03 /mars /2011 09:52

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03459.x. 


High sensitivity and specificity of the C6-peptide ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme neuroborreliosis patients.


van Burgel NDBrandenburg AGerritsen HJKroes ACvan Dam AP.) 

 

Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden ) IZORE, Centre for Infectious Diseases, Leeuwarden ) Department of Medical Microbiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT:

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a serious but treatable disease.

The diagnosis of LNB poses a challenge to clinicians, and improved tests are needed.

The C6-peptide ELISA is frequently used on serum but not on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Data on the sensitivity of the C6-peptide ELISA in CSF in patients suffering from LNB have been conflicting.

Serum-CSF pairs from 59 LNB patients, 36 Lyme non-neuroborreliosis cases, 69 infectious meningitis/encephalitis controls and 74 neurological controls were tested in a C6-peptide ELISA.

With the optimal cut-off of 1.1, the sensitivity of the C6-peptide ELISA for LNB patients in CSF was 95%, and the specificity was 83% in the Lyme non-neuroborreliosis patients, 96% in the infectious controls, and 97% in the neurological controls.

These results suggest that the C6-peptide ELISA has a high sensitivity and good specificity for the diagnosis of LNB patients in CSF.

The C6-peptide ELISA can be used on CSF in a clinical setting to screen for LNB.


© 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

PMID: 21375653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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12 mars 2011 6 12 /03 /mars /2011 09:49

PLoS One. 2011 Feb 23;6(2):e17287.

Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome.

Schutzer SEAngel TELiu TSchepmoes AAClauss TRAdkins JNCamp DGHolland BKBergquist JCoyle PKSmith RD,Fallon BANatelson BH.

Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

BACKGROUND: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS.


METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01). CFS (n = 43) had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25) contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes.


CONCLUSIONS:      nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements.

Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.

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12 mars 2011 6 12 /03 /mars /2011 09:42

Neurodegener Dis. 2011 Mar 10. 


Depletion of Plasma Gelsolin in Patients with Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

Kułakowska AZajkowska JMCiccarelli NJMroczko BDrozdowski WBucki R.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.


Background/Aims: Cell damage during the course of inflammation results in cytoplasmic actin release, which if not eliminated by the extracellular actin scavenger system, composed of gelsolin and vitamin D binding protein, can cause dysfunction of hemostasis and toxicity towards surrounding cells. In this study, we test the hypothesis that an inflammatory reaction induced by central nervous system infections such as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) or Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) will result in plasma gelsolin concentration changes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods: Quantitative Western blot was used to determine gelsolin levels in 58 samples, which include: 29 patients without infection (diagnosed with conditions such as idiopathic cephalalgia, idiopathic Bell's facial nerve palsy and ischialgia due to discopathy in which standard CSF diagnostic tests show no abnormalities), 12 patients diagnosed with TBE, and 17 patients diagnosed with LNB sub forma meningitis.

Results and Conclusion:

The gelsolin concentration in the blood of patients with TBE (163.2 ± 80.8 μg/ml) and LNB (113.6 ± 56.8 μg/ml) was significantly lower (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control group (226.3 ± 100.7 μg/ml). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the CSF gelsolin concentration in patients with TBE (3.9 ± 3.3 μg/ml), LNB (2.9 ± 1.2 μg/ml) and the control group (3.7 ± 3.3 μg/ml). An observed decrease in gelsolin concentration in the blood of TBE and LNB patients supports previous findings indicating the involvement of gelsolin in the pathophysiology of an inflammatory response.

Therefore, evaluation of blood gelsolin concentration and administration of recombinant plasma gelsolin might provide a new tool to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for TBE and LNB.

Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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11 mars 2011 5 11 /03 /mars /2011 16:00

Le nombre de cas de dengue hospitalisés va croissant aux États-Unis.

Cette tendance à l’augmentation est mise en évidence par l’analyse rétrospective des données intéressant les patients sortis d’hospitalisation avec un diagnostic de dengue entre 2000 et 2007 dans la cohorte du National Inpatients Sample discharges.

L’accroissement observé est considérable : le nombre d’hospitalisations pour dengue dans le pays aurait été multiplié par plus de 3 au cours de la période d’étude, les taux régionaux d’incidence indiquant les voyages comme source la plus probable de cette augmentation.



Streit J et coll. : Increasing trends in hospitalizations for dengue in the United States. International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance – IMED (Vienne) : 4-7 février 2011.

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10 mars 2011 4 10 /03 /mars /2011 13:14

Espagne : les tiques profitent du réchauffement pour passer à l’attaque

 

Un nouveau scénario catastrophe vient s¹ajouter à la longue liste des

fléaux que pourrait provoquer le changement climatique. Une

augmentation importante des populations de tiques est prévue,

accompagnée d¹une recrudescence des maladies graves que ces

arthropodes transmettent à l¹homme. Un phénomène déjà observé depuis

plusieurs années en Europe et en Amérique du Nord.

 

© Liane Nothaft

 

Les tiques verraient leur population s¹accroître avec le réchauffement climatique.

 

Selon Agustín Estrada Peña, professeur en parasitologie à la faculté

de médecine vétérinaire de Saragosse, le réchauffement climatique va

permettre l’expansion en altitude et en latitude des populations de

tiques. Si le scientifique estime qu¹il n’y a pas lieu de s¹alarmer

pour l’instant, il souligne néanmoins que le risque pour la santé

publique est avéré. Un seul degré d’augmentation de la température

moyenne pourrait entraîner une accélération notable de la reproduction

des tiques et étendre considérablement leurs zones d’habitat.

 

C¹est dans le sang des vertébrés, notamment de l’homme et du chien,

que la plupart des tiques puisent leur alimentation. Le cycle de vie

de ces parasites est très dépendant des conditions de température,

d¹humidité et de luminosité. C’est donc entre le printemps et

l’automne qu’ils sont les plus actifs.

 

Ces animaux minuscules sont présents sur l’ensemble du territoire

espagnol. On les rencontre le plus souvent dans les parcs publics, les

jardins et les piscines, voire même dans les maisons. Les femelles ont

la capacité de pondre entre 1 500 et 2 000 oeufs d’un coup. Ceux-ci

mettant entre 17 à 30 jours pour se développer. Cette fécondité élevée

peut conduire à un accroissement rapide et exponentiel de leur

population.

 

Le Centre Européen pour la Prévention et le Contrôle des Maladies

(ECDC : European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control) vient de

rendre public un rapport qui établit un lien direct entre le

réchauffement climatique et l¹expansion de la distribution

géographique de certaines espèces de tiques. Elles seraient

responsables de la transmission de maladies graves au sein de la

population. Ces travaux affirment par ailleurs que l¹Europe sera

touchée par ce phénomène au cours des prochaines années et que des

zones jusque là épargnées verront apparaître des cas graves liés à ces

infections.

 

Les pathologies concernées sont très nombreuses et comprennent entre

autres la fièvre boutonneuse méditerranéenne, l’encéphalite à tique,

la fièvre hémorragique de Congo-Crimée et la maladie de Lyme, encore

appelée borréliose. Agustín Estrada Peña indique que cette dernière

touche actuellement plus de 85 000 personnes en Europe, dont 8 000 en

Espagne.

 

Même si les personnes souffrant de ces affections sont la plupart du

temps exposées directement à des animaux ou des végétaux du fait de

leur profession, l’augmentation importante du nombre de tiques rendra

vulnérable l¹ensemble de la population

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6 mars 2011 7 06 /03 /mars /2011 11:16

Interview with Serguei Popov

Serguei Popov is a former scientist in the Russian biological warfare program. After obtaining a degree in biochemistry, he served as a division head in Vector and Obolensk, branches of the Soviet program dedicated to developing genetically enhanced bioweapons. His position allowed him to expand his research into the fields of molecular biology and microbiology. Dr. Popov worked at Vector from 1976 to 1986, then at Obolensk until 1992, when he defected to Britain and later traveled to the United States. He now works for Hadron, Inc., in microbiology and pharmacology

 

 

Homeland Defense: Did Factor also work with the classical agents?

Serguei Popov: Yes. The initial vision was that the old classical biological weapons would acquire new, unusual properties so that, for example, prophylaxis would be difficult. Project goals included high virulence, high stability, and surprising new outcomes for the disease in order to confuse treatment. To achieve those goals, there were several directions. The first was to express short biologically active peptides. Then there was an attempt to introduce toxin genes into those strains. The toxin genes could be short peptide toxins or they could be proteins.

Homeland Defense: For the benefit of the non-scientific audience, could you describe what a peptide basically is?

Serguei Popov: A peptide is a short protein fragment. Peptides are of the same origin and display properties of proteins. But peptides are more direct in their action and properties. They may target specific functions. We have an example of small peptides like endorphins or enkephalins. Those peptides are approximately 30 amino acids long, and it is about 10 to 20 times[fewer] amino acids than in an average protein. The peptides can interact with a receptor, and they could be produced in a biological way. It’s difficult to produce morphine or other drugs through genetic means. But endorphin peptides have similar properties. In the case of peptides, you make a very small DNA chain that codes for the peptide, and you introduce that gene into the genome of any agent. That’s, in general, all you need.

Small peptides that are neuro-active were capable of changing behavior. Some peptides also created changes of behavior and could have other activities, because they were multifunctional peptides. One example of this was vasopressin, which affects blood pressure. Some peptides were toxins, while others offered a completely new approach for causing autoimmune diseases.

 

Homeland Defense: Was it your goal to produce the toxins in quantities sufficient by themselves, or was it always part of your plan for one organism to produce the toxins inside the host?

Serguei Popov: The final goal of Factor was to create microorganisms that produce these toxins inside the host. But there was another program that dealt directly with toxins themselves. It was closely linked to Factor because when we studied the action of toxins engineered into microbes, we had to know their behavior, meaning we needed them in control experiments. The goal of genetically engineering the weapons was to create strains of microorganism producing toxins, such as viruses coding for toxins and ultimately producing toxins

In Obolensk, we did extensive experimentation with different bacteria carrying a myelin gene. We finally found that an agent called Legionella created very strong immunological responses. The myelin peptide it produced was very immunogenic because the immune system was activated by the infectious process. That’s what resulted in paralysis and death of infected experimental animals. And what is important as well, a lethal dose was much lower, only a few Legionella cells.

 

Serguei Popov:  In general, there is a basic technique to make a viral or bacterial genome easier to manipulate genetically. First you take a gene of interest and you put it in a suitable biological vehicle, often called a vector. Here the gene can be changed, and new properties can be added. More importantly, the vector could be introduced into a bacterial strain, so that the bacteria will carry it, and will acquire the properties to produce the substance the gene codes for. Usually, the bacterial host is harmless, but it can be pathogenic. The gene product can be pathogenic as well. In the above case of the myelin peptide, [the] immune system eliminates the bacteria that produced it, but the peptide triggers a slow destructive immune response. And you are right when you say people in biodefense have never considered this approach.

Let me provide you with another example of a new bioweapon idea, which was under development when I left Russia. Imagine plague carrying a whole copy of a virus. You would expect that people infected with genetically engineered strains of plague would be treated for plague. But the antibiotic treatment would actually make the patient worse because of the antibiotic-induced release of the virus from its copy. A virus infection on top of a bacterial infection may be a situation you will never be able to properly deal with.

 

Homeland Defense: So you don’t have the virus until you kill the bacteria?

Serguei Popov: No, you don’t.

Homeland Defense: In the exercise we did in May, called “Topoff,” in Denver, we did the simulation of a plague attack, and they chose plague because treatment, in theory, is simple. You just need to provide people with antibiotics. But in your scenario, it wouldn’t matter. No matter how effective we are at controlling it, the more antibiotics you pass out, the more viruses you release?

Serguei Popov: Exactly. Each disease has completely different symptoms and incubation periods, which means treated people will appear healthy and think they are fine. But the treated people are still sick. They simply don’t know it. And a new viral disease can appear after a few days in cases of recombinant plague, or two or three weeks in case of recombinant Legionella. People will experience paralysis, and their central nervous system will cease to function.

Homeland Defense: And how long does it take for this paralysis to take effect?

Serguei Popov: It’s difficult to say, but the disease itself in animals is quite fast (a few days).

Homeland Defense: Some of the peptides you’ve mentioned are extremely novel. But in looking at some of your viral agents, was it more in your interest to create new properties, or to perpetuate existing systems?

Serguei Popov: Initially, the purpose was to bring new properties to existing strains. But the whole program shifted development in the 1980s into new strains. We struggled with the problem of small peptides creating new properties, putting them into active strains. We began to ask ourselves, “Why should we insert peptides into classical strains when we could put them in new strains with new properties, and it could become a weapon even more difficult to deal with or cure?” So the whole plan of the program was shifted to making new virulent strains. In this area, I was relatively successful in making autoimmune peptides effective.

Homeland Defense: Out of curiosity, was tularemia an interest of your program?

Serguei Popov: Well it was, but it was considered an old workhorse, an old vehicle. In terms of genetic engineering with tularemia, there was little activity.

Homeland Defense: How about mycoplasm?

Serguei Popov: We didn’t try that. I know that they looked at it, but that was in a different institute.

 

Homeland Defense: You mentioned the development of “subtle agents,” using biopeptides and bioregulators. Did Vector also work on similar agents that would affect people from a psychological perspective?

Serguei Popov: Yes, endorphins, enkephalins, and other neuromodulating peptides. It has been discovered that personalities could be adjusted with these agents. For example, you could make people more aggressive. Or you could create feelings of insomnia, where people wanted to sleep, but would never feel tired.

 

Editor’s note: The Journal of Homeland Defense disagrees with the Soviet claim that such activity was legal. The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits any type of activity (development, production, or stockpiling) regarding the offensive use of biological or toxin weapons. Article I from the convention is provided at the end of the interview for the readers’ perusal.

 

======================================================================

 

"The Russians did a lot in their bioweapons program. But most of that isn't published, so we don't know what they know."

On a winter's afternoon last year, in the hope of discovering just what the Russians had done, I set out along Highway 15 in Virginia to visit Serguei Popov at the Manassas campus of George Mason University. Popov came to the National Center for Biodefense after buying a book called Biohazard in 2000. This was the autobiography of Ken Alibek, Biopreparat's former deputy chief, its leading scientist, and Popov's ultimate superior. One of its passages described how, in 1989, Alibek and other Soviet bosses had attended a presentation by an unnamed "young scientist" from Biopreparat's bacterial-research complex at Obolensk, south of Moscow.

 

Following this presentation, Alibek wrote,

"the room was absolutely silent. We all recognized the implications of what the scientist had achieved. A new class of weapons had been found. For the first time, we would be capable of producing weapons based on chemical substances produced naturally by the human body. They could damage the nervous system, alter moods, trigger psychological changes, and even kill."

When Popov read that, I asked him, had he recognized the "young scientist?"

"Yes," he replied. "That was me."

 

 

I asked Popov whether bioweaponeers could design pathogens that induced the type of effects usually associated with psychopharmaceuticals.

"Essentially, a pathogen is only a vehicle," Popov replied. "Those vehicles are available -- a huge number of pathogens you could use for different jobs. If the drug is a peptide like endorphin, that's simple. If you're talking about triggering the release of serotonin and dopamine -- absolutely possible. To cause amnesia, schizophrenia -- yes, it's theoretically possible with pathogens.

 

If you talk about pacification of a subject population -- yes, it's possible. The beta-endorphin was proposed as potentially a pacification agent. For more complex chemicals, you'd need the whole biological pathways that produce them. Constructing those would be enormously difficult. But any drug stimulates specific receptors, and that is doable in different ways. So instead of producing the drug, you induce the consequences. Pathogens could do that, in principle."

Psychotropic recombinant pathogens may sound science fictional, but sober biologists support Popov's analysis. Harvard University professor of molecular biology Matthew Meselson is, with Frank Stahl, responsible for the historic Meselson-Stahl experiment of 1957, which proved that DNA replicated semi-conservatively, as Watson and Crick had proposed. Meselson has devoted much effort to preventing biological and chemical weapons.

 

In 2001, warning that biotechnology's advance was transforming the possibilities of bioweaponeering, he wrote in the New York Review of Books,

"As our ability to modify life processes continues its rapid advance, we will not only be able to devise additional ways to destroy life but will also become able to manipulate it -- including the fundamental biological processes of cognition, development, reproduction, and inheritance."

I asked Meselson if he still stood by this. "Yes," he said. After telling him of Popov's accounts of Russian efforts to engineer neuromodulating pathogens, I said I was dubious that biological weapons could achieve such specific effects. "Why?" Meselson bluntly asked. He didn't believe such agents had been created yet -- but they were possible.

 

Current research is investigating agents that target the distinct biochemical pathways in the central nervous system and that could render people sedate, calm, or otherwise incapacitated. All that targeting specificity could, in principle, also be applied to biological weapons.

The disturbing scope of the resulting possibilities was alluded to by George Poste, former chief scientist at SmithKline Beecham and the sometime chairman of a task force on bioterrorism at the U.S. Defense Department, in a speech he gave to the National Academies and the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC, in January 2003.

 

According to the transcript of the speech, Poste recalled that at a recent biotech conference he had attended a presentation on agents that augment memory:

"A series of aged rats were paraded with augmented memory functions.... And some very elegant structural chemistry was placed onto the board.... Then with the most casual wave of the hand the presenter said, 'Of course, modification of the methyl group at C7 completely eliminates memory. Next slide, please.'"

 

Serguei Popov has lived with these questions longer than most. When I asked him what could be done, he told me,

"I don't know what kind of behavior or scientific or political measures would guarantee that the new biology won't hurt us."

But the vital first step, Popov said, was for scientists to overcome their reluctance to discuss biological weapons.

"Public awareness is very important. I can't say it's a solution to this problem. Frankly, I don't see any solution right now. Yet first we have to be aware."


Biopreparat pathogens

Pathogens that were successfully weaponized by the organization included (in order of completion):

Annual production capacities for many of the above listed pathogens were in the tens of tons, typically with redundant production facilities located throughout the Soviet Union.

 

 

http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/Default.aspx?oid=3&ocat=4

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopreparat

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meselson-Stahl_experiment

 

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_biotechnology01.htm

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bioterror/biow_popov.html

 


 

 

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6 mars 2011 7 06 /03 /mars /2011 10:54

La classification des armes biologiques suit tout simplement la classification des sciences naturelles.

On distingue généralement (Bureau des affaires du désarmement des Nations Unies) 5 catégories :

- Les bactéries, cultivées dans des milieux artificiels de culture liquide ou solide. Différentes bactéries peuvent être utilisées dans des armes biologiques, comme le bacillus anthracis, la brucella suisi, le Yersinia pertis, le Vibrio cholerae, le pasteurella tularensis et la Salmonella typhi. On reconnait là facilement les agents infectieux permettant de provoquer des épidémies de grippe, de peste, de choléra, de fièvre jaune ou de typhus...

- Les virus, nettement plus petits que les bactéries, qui abondent dans la nature. Leurs effets peuvent être amplifiés par une mutation naturelle ou par une modification génétique. Différents virus peuvent être utilisés : celui de l'encéphalite équine du Venezuela, le virus d'Ebola, celui de Hantaa, le virus de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift ou le virus de la fièvre jaune...

- Les rickettsies, analogues aux bactéries, plus grandes qu'elles mais plus petites que les virus, comme le Coxiella burnetti, le Bartonnella quintana, le Rickettsia prowasecki ou le Rickettsia rickettsii...

- Les champignons, micro-organismes qui produisent des spores et se nourrissent de matière organique, surtout nuisibles pour les végétaux. Différents agents fongiques peuvent être utilisés : Colletotrichum kahawae, l'Helminthosporium oryzae ou le Mircocyclus ulei....

- Les toxines, produits ou dérivés d'animaux, de plantes ou de micro-organismes, qui, à la différence des autres agents biologiques ne peuvent se reproduire. Différentes toxines peuvent être utilisées : aflatoxines, toxines butoliques, ricine, entérotoxines ou saxitoxines...


  Tous ces micro-organismes possèdent le mérite d'avoir une action lente et indécelable au départ, obligeant pour s'en prémunir d'effectuer des vaccinations massives plus ou moins efficaces. Par contre, de nombreuses contraintes limitent le nombre d'agents biologiques susceptibles d'être utilisés comme arme. De ce fait peu d'entre eux retiennent l'attention des militaires. Cependant les progrès de la microbiologie peuvent étendre les possibilités. 

 

Voir http://www.leconflit.com/categorie-10506817.html

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Le point en 71 pages bien présentées . 

 

http://www.drcarman.info/bio251lx/251lex12.pdf

 

 

 

 

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Summary: The possibility of a Rickettsial origin for symptoms of depression and psychotic disfunction has been suggested by French scientists (Ch. Nicolle, Giroud, Legag, Jadin, Bottero) in their published works. Hence 300 patients, diagnosed as suffering from depression, or other neuropsychiatric dysfunction have been treated with antibiotic where a positive indicaton of Rickettsial infection was revealed as follows:

1.Many symptoms of these patients were similar to those exhibited in chronic Rickettsial diseases. 2.The treatment followed the finding that their serum reacted positively to the Giroud micro-agglutination test.

Giroud Test - specific for testing antibodies to these 5 antigens (R36):

ß Rickettsia Prowazeki ß R. Mooseri ß R. Conori ß Coxiella Burnetti

ß Neo-R. Q18

Done by micro agglutination Depends on the quality of antigens Comparative studies with IFA test gave very similar result

ß Positive reaction = presence of antibodies; (does not necessarily mean illness)

ß Negative reaction does not suppress Rickettsial etiology (R1,25)

Done by micro agglutination Patients and Methods: Statistics of 300 patients (100% Caucasian)

 

Voir

http://www.lassesen.com/cfids/documents/Jadin_paper2.pdf

 

 

 

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5 mars 2011 6 05 /03 /mars /2011 12:03

 

Les bouteilles plastiques 

 

A retenir : tout récipient laisse des traces

dans son contenu, et beaucoup de nos aliments

sont conditionnés dans des emballages plastiques,

l'eau en bouteille n'y échappe pas,

l'eau du robinet non plus. 

 

DANGER PHTALATES

 


 "Ces traces sont plus de milles fois plus faibles que celles les pesticides"

+ fois + = toujours +

 

http://www.igepac.com/article-civilisation-plastique-62701340.html

 


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