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26 février 2011 6 26 /02 /février /2011 10:12

Aillicine

 A cause de ses vertus antiseptiques (antibactériennes et fongicides), l'ail est utilisé dans différents contextes touchant aux arts plastiques.

Cependant, il contient des substances relativement agressives et ce n'est pas pour rien qu'il est assez indigeste pour beaucoup. C'est d'ailleurs sa manière de se protéger des animaux. Comme l'oignon, il peut gravement blesser de petits mammifères.

Une chimie inattendue

L'ail contient de très nombreuses substances - comme tous les végétaux - aux propriétés pour le moins variées, mais son composant le plus important est sulfuré. Il recèle en effet un acide aminé sulfuré, l'alliine qui se combine à une enzyme, l'allinase, lorsque l'on coupe ou l'on broie une gousse. Le résultat de cette réaction est l'allicine (H2C=CH-CH2-SO-S-CH2-CH=CH2), un polysulfide insaturé.

On est donc en présence de substances différentes selon que l'ail est ou non intact.

Usages

Il est à noter que lorsque l'on cuit l'ail et son allicine - une action mentionnée dans certains procédés de préparation de liants -, cette substance régresse sous la forme de composés sulfurés variés.

La présence de soufre dans l'ail n'est peut-être pas sans rapport avec les coutumes censées apaiser ou éloigner les démons (les âmes en souffrance), qui sait ? Toujours est-il que dans le domaine des arts plastiques, on utilise l'ail comme agent conservateur (notamment de la colle de peau) et aussi, selon André Béguin, pour désinfecter des surfaces à peindre déjà enduites.

Ces pratiques "sentent le soufre" si l'on peut dire, car si l'action antiseptique de l'allicine est une certitude, la présence de très nombreux autres éléments dans le jus d'ail n'est pas forcément indiquée dans tous les cas de figures. De plus, l'allicine, qui est insaturée rappelons-le, peut évoluer de manière difficile à prévoir.

Sans doute à cause de cette insaturation, le jus d'ail aurait été utilisé comme colle en enluminure (dorure) et en horlogerie. Il semble cependant que l'ajout de puissants siccatifs était nécessaire.

La meilleur solution pour se débarrasser d'une souche, c'est encore de l'arracher du sol. Mais bon c'est long, fatiguant, bref on reste avec sa souche en plein milieu du terrain.

Voici une méthode 100% naturelle qui va vous simplifier la vie.

Matériel : 1 perceuse, une tête d'ail (rose ou blanc au choix),un couteau, du papier journal, et un peu d'eau.
Creuser sur 10 cm de profondeur autour de la souche, afin de dégager les racines principales. Percer les racines ainsi que la souche à l'aide de la perceuse. Éplucher vos gousses d'ail et insérer les dans les orifices préalablement percés.

Découper des bandes de papier journal que vous faites tremper dans l'eau et reboucher les trous avec.

Les bouchons éviteront que les gousses d'ail ne sèchent ou soient déloger par un animal.

L'aillicine est un poison naturel. Laisser agir, et la souche va mourir sur elle même.

L'ail détruit la bactérie responsable de la gonorrhée

 

Des extraits d'ail se sont révélés efficaces contre la bactérie responsable de la gonorrhée, lors de tests en laboratoire.

La gonorrhée est une des maladies sexuellement transmissibles les plus courantes.

Elle est causée par le gonocoque Neisseria gonorrhoea.

Patrick Ruddock, un étudiant à la maîtrise au Département de biologie de l'Université d'Ottawa, a fait des essais avec 24 suppléments pour voir comment l'ail s'attaque au gonocoque en question.

Il a tout d'abord constaté que bon nombre des préparations ne contenaient pas la quantité d'ail promise sur l'étiquette. Des gélules, des capsules d'ail en poudre et des capsules d'huile essayées, ce sont les capsules d'ail en poudre qui se sont révélées être les meilleures.

Quatre extraits ont été préparés puis incubés avec le gonocoque. M. Ruddock dit avoir constaté une activité supérieure à ses attentes, et même supérieure à celle d'autres substances chimiques dérivées de plantes qu'il a étudiées.

Les extraits dont la teneur en aillicine, le composé actif de l'ail, était la plus élevée se sont révélés les plus efficaces contre le gonocoque.

M. Ruddock tentera maintenant de voir comment ces extraits peuvent stimuler ou bloquer l'action des antibiotiques utilisés dans le traitement de la gonorrhée.


Jean-Benoit Legault - PasseportSanté.net

Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Mar 1;6:5.

Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients.

Kojuri J, Vosoughi AR, Akrami M.

Department of Cardiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. kojurij@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND:

hyperlipidemia as a major risk factor of atherosclerosis is treated with different drugs. Concerning length of therapy and vast majority of side effects, herbal medication may be suitable substitute for these drugs.

METHODS: In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 150 hyperlipidemic patients in cardiology outpatient department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were checked at same conditions.

They were divided into three equal groups randomly (each composing of 50 patients). They were given enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin) twice daily, anethum tablet (650 mg) twice daily, and placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Pi diet and Six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. RESULTS:

In garlic group: total cholesterol (decreased by 26.82 mg/dl, 12.1% reduction, and P-value: .000), and LDL-cholesterol (decreased by 22.18 mg/dl, 17.3% reduction, and P-value: .000) dropped. HDL-cholesterol (increased by 10.02 mg/dl, 15.7% increase, and P-value: .000) increased. Although triglyceride dropped by 13.72 mg/dl (6.3%) but this was not significant statistically (P-value: .222).

In anethum group: surprisingly, triglyceride increased by 14.74 mg/dl (6.0%). Anethum could reduce total cholesterol by 0.4 % and LDL-cholesterol by 6.3% but these were not significant statistically (P-value: .828, and .210, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Anethum has no significant effect on lipid profile, but garlic tablet has significant favorable effect on cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Garlic may play an important role in therapy of hypercholesterolemia.

PMID: 17328819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

 

 

 

 

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24 février 2011 4 24 /02 /février /2011 18:19

Marseille, le jeudi 24 février 2011 – Cet automne, le service de réanimation de l’hôpital Nord de Marseille avait dû être fermé pendant plusieurs semaines après le décès de quatre patients victimes d’une infection à aspergillus.

Aujourd’hui, dans les établissements de l’Assistance publique des hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM) resurgit le spectre d’une épidémie d’infections nosocomiales mortelles.

Quatorze cas d’infections à Acinetobacter baumanii ont en effet été recensés et quatre décès pourraient être imputés à cette bactérie plutôt rare en France.

Différents établissements sont touchés et l’alerte a été donnée le 15 février après les signalements effectués par Didier Raoult, professeur de virologie.

L’affaire est observée avec une grande vigilance par les autorités sanitaires qui ont tenu sur le sujet ce mercredi 23 février une réunion de coordination au ministère de la Santé.

Résistance

L’inquiétude est grande en raison notamment du précédent observé dans plusieurs hôpitaux du Nord.

En 2003, vingt-trois patients avaient été touchés dans quatre établissements différents et huit décès avaient été déplorés. La souche détectée s’était révélée productrice de bêta lactamase à spectre élargi ce qui lui conférait un phénotype de résistance particulier, ne la laissant sensible qu’à l’imipénem et à la colistine.

Les bactéries en cause en Provence seraient similaires. Cependant, les praticiens des hôpitaux touchés se veulent rassurants. « Nos hôpitaux fonctionnent normalement, nous n’avons pas de fermeture de services. Il faut multiplier toutes les procédures de nettoyage des mains pour les personnes au contact des malades immunodéprimés » commente Jean-Paul Segade, directeur général de l’AP-HM cité par la Provence.



Aurélie Haroche

JIM.fr
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21 février 2011 1 21 /02 /février /2011 15:02

A comme Autisme et Amygdale

Publié le 15/02/2011  


Dans la mesure où des données de neuro-imagerie et des études post-mortem suggéraient déjà l’existence d’anomalies neuro-anatomiques affectant certaines régions cérébrales chez des sujets ayant des troubles du registre autistique (ASD pourautism spectrum disorder)*, en particulier l’amygdale, une recherche a été consacrée à l’exploration de ce trouble en imagerie par résonance magnétique (incluant des vues en 3 dimensions).

Fruit d’une collaboration entre des équipes de Corée du Sud et des États-Unis, cette étude porte sur 51 enfants âgés de 6 à 7 ans : 15 garçons et 5 filles avec autisme, 9 garçons et 2 filles avec trouble envahissant du développement (pervasive developmental disorder), et un groupe-témoin de 12 garçons et 8 filles, dits «neurotypiques» (typically developing).

Chez les enfants diagnostiqués ASD, les volumes amygdaliens sont significativement augmentés (environ +13 % à droite et +11 % à gauche) par rapport aux sujets-témoins. On observe aussi un élargissement s’étendant aux zones latérobasales de l’amygdale et une association de ces anomalies avec des déficits dans les domaines de la socialisation et de la communication.

Cette étude confirme donc l’existence d’une dimension organique (en l’occurrence neuro-anatomique et neuro-physiologique) dans le déterminisme de l’autisme. Exerçant à l’École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, le Pr. Nouchine Hadjikhani (1) rappelle toutefois que certains autistes, notamment les sujets avec syndrome d’Asperger (qui se désignent familièrement eux-mêmes « les Aspies ») ne se considèrent pas comme « malades », mais simplement comme « différents. »

Une association (Aspies For Freedom) exprime d’ailleurs cette revendication identitaire : «L’autisme n’est pas une maladie. Nous nous opposons à toute tentative de ‘‘guérison’’ des personnes qui ont une condition d’autiste, et de normalisation contre leur volonté.» Affichant un droit inaliénable à la différence, et une volonté de s’insurger contre toute discrimination venue des «neurotypiques», cette association renverse d’ailleurs, non sans humour, le principe des études, comme celle présentée ici, pour voir le « problème » résider en fait chez les autres, les non autistes, les « sujets-témoins » de ces recherches. Selon eux, « le syndrome neurotypique est un trouble neurobiologique caractérisé par une préoccupation excessive par les problèmes sociaux, un délire de supériorité et une obsession du conformisme. » D’où un retournement total de la perspective de ces recherches : «La neurotypicalité est un trouble d’origine génétique. Des autopsies ont démontré que le cerveau des neurotypiques est plus petit que celui des autistes, et que les zones de l’interaction sociale sont hypertrophiques. »

Relativité des points de vue… On dit qu’Einstein lui-même serait peut-être, aujourd’hui, étiqueté autiste !

*L’autism spectrum disordercorrespondant à peu près en français aux dénominations «trouble d’allure autistique» ou «trouble envahissant du développement».  

[1]http://podcast.unil.ch/podcast/ssp/iscm/cmtb_2008/cmtb_17_Hadjikhani_slides.pdf

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21 février 2011 1 21 /02 /février /2011 11:51

Les bactéries intestinales,

la clé au développement cérébral

 

 

D'après une nouvelle recherche financée par l'UE publiée dans la revue Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), les bactéries intestinales semblent influencer le développement cérébral et le comportement adulte.

Les résultats suggèrent que la colonisation de nos intestins par des microbes au début de la vie pourrait être la clé pour un développement cérébral sain.

La recherche peut également avoir des implications dans notre compréhension des troubles psychiatriques. 

Le soutien de l'UE pour les travaux provient du projet TORNADO («Molecular targets open for regulation by the gut flora - new avenues for improved diet to optimize European health»), qui a accordé 5,9 millions d'euros au titre du thème «Alimentation, agriculture et pêche, et biotechnologie» du septième programme-cadre (7e PC).

L'objectif de TORNADO est de comprendre l'influence de l'alimentation sur les microbes intestinaux et, par la suite, l'influence de ces derniers sur le système immunitaire et autres. TORNADO a été lancé en 2009 et s'achèvera à la fin de 2013. 



Il est bien connu que notre environnement en début de vie possède une influence majeure sur notre développement. Peu après la naissance, les intestins des bébés mammifères sont rapidement colonisés par une communauté diverse de bactéries. Les études ont montré que ce processus est essentiel au développement sain de nombreux systèmes corporels dont la fonction immunitaire, le développement des vaisseaux sanguins et la fonction rénale. 



Comme de nombreux autres organes, le cerveau est affecté par des facteurs environnementaux dont l'organisme fait l'expérience aussitôt né. La recherche a démontré un lien entre l'infection par les microbes pathogéniques à la naissance et les troubles neurodéveloppementaux tels que l'autisme et la schizophrénie. 

Dans le cadre de cette étude, des scientifiques de l'institut Karolinska et du Stockholm Brain Institute en Suède, avec des collègues du Genome Institute de Singapour, se sont mis à la quête de l'influence de microbes intestinaux «normaux» sur le développement et la fonction du cerveau. 



L'équipe a comparé le comportement de souris ayant grandi avec des micro-organismes normaux à des souris ayant grandi dans un environnement dépourvu de micro-organismes (souris axéniques). 

Les expériences ont montré que les souris axéniques étaient plus actives que leurs homologues porteuses de microbes et avaient également un comportement plus «périlleux». Exposer les souris axéniques aux microbes à une étape précoce de la vie entraînait à des adultes se comportant de façon similaire que les souris ayant été exposées aux bactéries depuis la naissance.

Toutefois, la colonisation des bactéries chez les souris axéniques adultes n'affectait pas leur comportement; elles ont continué d'agir comme des souris axéniques. 

«Les données suggèrent qu'il existe une période cruciale en début de vie lorsque les micro-organismes intestinaux affectent le cerveau et altèrent le comportement plus tard», commentait l'auteur principal du document, le Dr Rochellys Diaz Heijtz de l'institut Karolinska et du Stockholm Brain Institute. 

Une analyse de l'activité génique dans les cerveaux des deux groupes de souris a présenté des différences dans les taux d'activité des gènes impliqués dans l'apprentissage, la mémoire et le contrôle moteur. 

«Nos résultats suggèrent qu'au cours de l'évolution, la colonisation des microbiotes intestinaux s'est intégrée à la programmation du développement, en affectant le contrôle moteur et le comportement d'angoisse», concluent les chercheurs. 



«Le microbiote intestinal peut également modifier l'expression de gènes à risque ou faire partie de mécanismes qui altèrent les fonctions cognitives observées chez les patients atteints de maladies gastro-intestinales», font remarquer les chercheurs.

«Enfin, les changements comportementaux observés imposés par la présence de la flore intestinale chez les rongeurs, comme on peut lire dans ce document, pourraient avoir des implications plus vastes lorsque les troubles psychiatriques chez les humains sont pris en considération.»

Pour de plus amples informations, consulter: 


Institut Karolinska: 
http://ki.se 



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS): 
http://www.pnas.org 



Projet TORNADO: 
http://www.fp7tornado.eu/

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Parasitol Res. 1995;81(6):475-80.


Intestinal amebiasis: cyclic suppression of the immune response.


Ghosh PKCastellanos-Barba COrtiz-Ortiz L.

Departamento de Inmunología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.

Abstract

The cellular immune response was evaluated in a C3H/HeJ mouse model of intestinal amebiasis at 5-60 days postinoculation with Entamoeba histolytica. At various intervals, spleen lymphocytes were obtained from infected and noninfected control mice and cultured with concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or ameba antigen. E. histolytica infection induced a cyclic depression of DNA synthesis when spleen lymphocytes were stimulated with a T-cell mitogen (Con A), a T- and B-cell (PWM) mitogen, or an ameba antigen. A similar response was observed in the determinations of interleukin-2 in the supernatants of Con A-stimulated spleen cells from infected mice. When spleen cells from E. histolytica-infected mice were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin, results indicated a signal-transduction defect. These alterations, observed at the cellular level, might facilitate invasion of the host by the parasite.

PMID: 7567905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 

Microb Pathog. 1987 Apr;2(4):241-8.

Immunosuppression and splenomegaly in Entamoeba histolytica infection in mice.

Ghadirian EKongshavn PA.

Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

Intestinal amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in mice is accompanied by a depression in the ability of this host to develop an immune response to sheep red blood cells. The number of splenic plaque-forming cells was reduced in mice inoculated intracecally with 2.5 x 10(5) trophozoites at 15, 25, 40, 65 and 75 days after infection when compared with non-infected mice. It was found that there was no significant difference between the spleen weight of the infected and non-infected control animals at 5 and 10 days following infection. However, a significant increase in spleen weight was observed by 15 days of infection and the spleens remained enlarged until termination of the experiment at 75 days. Thus, there was an inverse correlation between the PFC response and the spleen weight of infected animals.

PMID: 2907086 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985;79(5):618-23.

Lymphocyte subpopulations transformation studies in an experimental model of intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis.

Gill NJGanguly NKDilawari JBMahajan RC.

Abstract

The lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and blast transformation were studied on days 0, 3, 7, 11, 15, 20 and 35 after infection in progesterone-treated guinea-pigs which had been experimentally infected with Entamoeba histolytica by intracaecal inoculation. In animals with intestinal infection, lowered T cell numbers and blast transformation were seen during the acute phase with a subsequent tendency to recover. In guinea-pigs with hepatic amoebiasis, both these parameters were significantly depressed throughout the period of study with no tendency to recovery. In progesterone-treated and sham-operated animals, a less marked depression of T cells, was observed. The B cell population did not vary greatly in either group. This study has thus shown that in hepatic amoebiasis there is highly significant depression in both number and function of T cells in comparison to intestinal amoebiasis.

PMID: 3879396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 



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Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Jan;104(1):3-23.

Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms.

Rubinsky-Elefant GHirata CEYamamoto JHFerreira MU.

Laboratory of Seroepidemiology and Immunobiology, Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo, Avenida Dr Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 470, 05403-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. muferrei@usp.br

Abstract

Although human toxocariasis ranks among the most common zoonotic infections worldwide, it remains relatively unknown to the public. The causal agents are the nematode parasites Toxocara canis and T. cati, whose definitive hosts are dogs and cats, respectively. When embryonated eggs are accidentally ingested by humans, larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate, via the bloodstream, to the liver, lungs, muscles, eye and central nervous system. Although most human infections are asymptomatic, two well-defined clinical syndromes are classically recognised: visceral larva migrans (a systemic disease caused by larval migration through major organs) and ocular larva migrans (a disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves). Two less-severe syndromes have recently been described, one mainly in children (covert toxocariasis) and the other mainly in adults (common toxocariasis). Here, the current laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology and main clinical features of both the systemic and ocular forms of human toxocariasis are reviewed. New developments in serological diagnosis are described, the available seroprevalence data are analysed, and the results of relevant clinical studies that have been published over the last decade are explored, to provide an updated overview of this neglected but highly prevalent human infection.

PMID: 20149289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Sep;8(3):161-4.

Toxocariasis resulting in seeming allergy.

Qualizza RMegali RIncorvaia C.

Allergy Service, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milano, Milan, Italy. rosanna.qualizza@icp.mi.it

Abstract

Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode affecting dogs and cats that causes human infestations by ingestion of embryonated eggs excreted in dogs' faeces. Humans are transport hosts, in whom the larvae do not develop to adult worms, but may migrate to various tissues and organs, and survive for several years, giving rise to several clinical symptoms, which include allergy-like presentations. We report three cases presenting as dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis which were diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated as allergy. The correct diagnosis was established after detecting anti-Toxocara antibodies by Western blotting. All clinical symptoms showed improvement after starting treatment with mebendazole and subsequent courses of the antiparasitic drug resulted in full recovery. This suggests the possible role of Toxocara canis in inducing chronic symptoms of allergic type. This is particularly important for asthma, where it has been demonstrated that Toxocara canis infection causes allergic inflammation in the lungs associated with bronchial hyperreactivity. On the other hand, in our patients with asthma and with dermatitis the positive results from allergy tests were a confounding factor in delaying the correct diagnosis, which was finally obtained by the detection of antibodies to Toxocara canis.

PMID: 20124608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009 Dec;39(3):731-44.

Seroprevalence of human toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans).

El-Shazly AMAbdel Baset SMKamal AMohammed KASakrs TIHammad SM.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Abstract

A total of 455 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The enrolled patients were subjected to a questionnaire (including sociodemographic and other risk factors) and thorough clinical examination was done for the patients. Sera were collected from patients and tested for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies using ELISA. The overall anti- Toxocara seropositive was (7.7%). It was significantly higher than among the randomly selected 30 healthy controls. There were no significant differences between the seropositive and seronegative patients regarding age, sex, educational level and monthly family income of the patient. However, rural residence, poor house, pet's ownership and frequent contact with soil were found to be significant. Patients who had confirmed bronchial asthma were more than 2 times at higher risk of developing toxocariasis (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.09-4.98) than those with other clinical diagnosis (PUO, hepatomegaly or heptosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal troubles and dermatitis). Patients with eosinophilia were at 149 times greater risk of being Toxocara seropositive compared to those without eosinophilia (OR, 148.7; 95% CI: 53.5-413.3). Multivariate regression analysis showed eosinophilia and contact with soil were the most important predictors of toxocariasis. OD of anti-Toxocara antibodies (ELISA) was significantly positive with eosinophilia level.

PMID: 20120741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Korean Med Sci. 2009 Dec;24(6):1024-30. Epub 2009 Nov 7.

Toxocariasis might be an important cause of atopic myelitis in Korea.

Lee JYKim BJLee SPJeung YJOh MJPark MSPaeng JWLee BJChoi DC.

Department of Medicine, Center for Health Promotion, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Atopic myelitis is defined as myelitis with atopic diasthesis but the cause is still unknown. Toxocariasis is one of the common causes of hyperIgEaemia that may lead to neurologic manifestations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence of Toxocara specific IgG Ab among the atopic myelitis patients. We evaluated the medical records of 37 patients with atopic myelitis whose conditions were diagnosed between March 2001 and August 2007. Among them, the 33 sera were analyzed for specific serum IgG Ab to Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES). All of 37 patients had hyperIgEaemia. Specific IgE to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae was detected in 22 (64.7%) and 34 (100%) patients, respectively, of the 34 patients. Thirty-one of 33 patients (93.9%) were found to be positive by TES IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the image findings of eosinophilic infiltrations in the lung and liver, 8 patients had positive results. These results inferred that the prevalence of toxocariasis was high in patients with atopic myelitis. Our results suggest that toxocariasis might be an important cause of atopic myelitis and Toxocara ELISA is essential for evaluating the causes of atopic myelitis.

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20 février 2011 7 20 /02 /février /2011 10:46

Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2010;(1):76-9.

[Helminthiasis in children--possible variants of symbiosis].

Kucheria TV.

Abstract

ACTUALITY: protozoal diseases and helminthiases are an essential part of infectious diseases. The massive spread of parasitic diseases had been identified in all regions of the world, including in children., number of suffering from parasitic infections exceeds 20 million and has a tendency to increase in Russia. The magnitude of damage to people's health, intestinal helminthiases are among the four leading causes of all diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: under the supervision was a child with mixed-infestation of 7 helminths and parasites: enterobiosis + giardiasis, enterobiosis + ascariasis, ascariasis + trihotsefalez; enterobiosis giardiasis + toxocariasis. RESULTS: the case is of interest to clinicians and pediatricians in terms of diagnosis, because the helminthiasis was proceeded under the guise of somatic diseases associated with severe visceral injuries. Highlight helminthiasis on the stage of mixed-infestation among several helminths and parasites indicates a lack of pediatricians' alertness on parasitosis.

PMID: 20405716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Medicina (B Aires). 2010;70(1):75-8.

[Toxocara canis and bronchial asthma].

López Mde LBojanich MVJacobacci JMSercic CMichelini AAlonso JM.

Area de Inmunología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Resistencia, Chaco. jmalonso@medreg.unne.edu.ar

Abstract

In order to evaluate the association between the infection by Toxocara canis and the symptoms of asthma in children from a subtropical region with high prevalence of toxocariasis, 47 asthmatic children and 53 non-asthmatics as a control group were studied. A complete physical examination was performed and clinical and epidemiological data were registered. In asthmatic children the frequency and severity of symptoms were classified in grades I to IV. The presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in both groups was evaluated employing a solid phase ELISA method with excretion/secretion antigens, and total Ig E was also measured. Results showed a total seropositivity of 55%, 57.4% in children with asthma and 52.8% in the control group. Among asthmatics with severe symptoms (grade II, III and IV), there was a 67.7% of seropositivity while in children with symptoms of grade I there was a 37.5% (p = 0.0470). The infection with T. canis could act as a co-factor increasing the severity of the symptoms of bronchial asthma.

PMID: 20228029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


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20 février 2011 7 20 /02 /février /2011 10:42
Exp Parasitol () (2010)
Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second stage larvae in vitro and in vivo.
Unidade de Helmintologia e Malacologia Médicas/ UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
ABSTRACT

The anthelmintic activity of extracts from Chenopodiumambrosioides, Pycnanthusangolensis and Nutridesintox(R) was in vitro and in vivo investigated, against Toxocaracanis larvae. The in vitro assays results showed that the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox(R) was the most effective, followed by C. ambrosioides extracts, hexane, dichloromethane and the infusion. P. angolensis extracts showed a lower anthelmintic activity compared to the other natural products. For the in vivo assays, Nutridesintox(R), the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were administered orally to T. canis-infected mice, in single doses, during three consecutive days. The efficacy was evaluated on the 17(th) day post infection, not only by counting T. canis larvae in the tissues but also by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The different treatments did not reduce the larvae burden and had no influence on the antibodies dynamic. Interestingly, a reduction on the inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. In conclusion, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides is of further research interest, as it showed an anthelmintic activity in vitro and a reduction on the inflammatory reaction produced by the infection of T. canis larvae in vivo. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2010.04.023 
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NUTRIDESINTOX (Chenopodium ambrosioides and Pycnanthus angolensis)

 

Title: In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of plant extracts and a nutritional supplement against Toxocara canis

Authors:

Mariana Reisa, Maria J. Ferreirab, Ana R. Monsalve-Puelloc, Miguel Correiad, Alcione Trincaa, Maria A.A. Grácioa

 

Address:

a Unidade de Helmintologia e Malacologia Médicas/ UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

b iMed.UL, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

c Nutrialimentos Jesana S.L., Barcelona, Espanha

d Departamento de Histologia, Embriologia e Biologia Celular, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

 

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to search for new treatments for human toxocariasis using in vitro and in vivo experiments and ethnobotanical data. Thus, extracts from two plants (Chenopodium ambrosioides and Pycnanthus angolensis) used in folk medicine as anthelmintics, and a nutritional supplement (Nutridesintox®) have been evaluated against Toxocara canis larvae. Albendazole was used as a standard reference. In the in vitro experiments, the nutritional supplement Nutridesintox® was the most effective, followed by the hexane and the dichloromethane extracts and the infusion of C. ambrosioides.

The methanolic, ethanolic and the methylene chloride extracts of P. angolensis showed no anthelmintic efficacy. Due to their in vitro anthelmintic activity, the nutritional supplement, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were selected for the in vivo experiments.

These products were administered orally to T. canis-infected CD1 mice in single doses during three consecutive days, commenced on day 10 post-infection. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated on day 5 after the last dose, by counting the numbers of T. canis larvae in the brain, liver, lungs and muscles, detection of IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The dynamics of the antibodies on the treated groups showed a similar profile as compared to the control group, statistically significant differences were not found. The different treatments did not show a clear evidence of reduction of larvae burden in the infected tissues. The level of infection in the brain was higher than in the other organs examined, except for the group treated with the infusion of C. ambrosioides.

Interestingly, a reduction of inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. The in vitro and in vivo results call for further studies on these natural products, in order to find alternative therapeutic regimens for human toxocariasis.

 

Keywords: Anthelmintic activity; Chenopodium ambrosioides; Pycnanthus angolensis Toxocara canis

 

1. Introduction

 Toxocara canis(Werner, 1782), the roundworm of dogs, is the etiologic agent of human toxocariasis. As the dog constitutes one of our most common pets, this ensured the worldwide distribution of this zoonotic disease. Commonly the infection is acquired after ingestion of embryonated T. canis eggs that can be present in soil contaminated with dog faeces. Children are usually the most susceptible to infect because of their habits of pica (Despommier, 2003). As larvae hatch in the stomach they penetrate the mucosal epithelium and thereafter remain developmentally arrested in the tissue phase. Although they do not grow or differentiate in the paratenic host they maintain an active metabolism and migratory behaviour (Maizels et al., 2000). Their wandering around the body gives rise to two main syndromes; visceral larva migrans (VLM), in which the major organs are affected and ocular larva migrans (OLM), when it affects the eye, in some cases, it can lead to unilateral blindness (Magnaval et al., 2001)

 The most common anthelmintic drugs used for the treatment of toxocariasis belong to the benzimidazole carbamates group (Pawlowski, 2001). However, these drugs have a low bioavailability for tissues, due to their extremely low solubility, resulting in relatively high doses over a long periods of time (Hrčkova and Velebný, 2001). In addition, the use of these drugs for treatment of other helminths leads to drug resistance, as it was already verified in Mali for Necator americanus (De Clercq et al., 1997). Thus, new drugs for treatment of helminthic diseases are urgently needed. The study of plants used in traditional medicine as anthelmintics could give new insights for active compounds. The co-evolution human-helminth has a long existence and the use of plants for treatment of helminth parasites is recorded since the prehistorical times (Reinhard et al., 1985). Since then, the popular knowledge of medicinal plants has been consolidated throughout generations by trial and error experiences.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a species originally from Central and South America, which grows wild in Portugal and in the Mediterranean region. In Portugal is popularly known as “formigueira” or “erva-de-Santa-Maria”, the infusions made of leaves and inflorescences are used as vermifuge and for the treatment of asthmatic and nervous manifestations (Tecedeiro, 1996).

Pycnanthus angolensis(Welw.) Warb. (Myristicaceae), is known as “pó-casson” in the islands of São Tomé e Principe. Preparations of its stem bark are used of as anthelmintic, analgesic, haemostatic and for the treatment of pneumonial infections (Betti, 2002; Diehl et al., 2004).

Nutridesintox® is a nutritional supplement composed of fruits, vegetables and seeds, designed to purify the organism from toxins produced by the metabolic activity of parasites.

The objective of the current study was to assay some plant extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides and Pycnanthus angolensis and one nutritional supplement (Nutridesintox®) against T. canis larvae in order to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.

 

2. Materials and Methods

2.2 Parasite

Toxocara canis adult worms were collected from naturally infected puppies by using an anthelmintic (pyrantel pamoate, Pfizer). The eggs were removed from the worm uterus and were maintained in 1% formalin at 27 ºC until the development of the infective stage.

 

2.1 Plant material and nutritional supplement preparations

Chenopodium ambrosioides was collected in Portugal (authenticated by voucher number). The plant extracts were obtained by sequentially extracting 50 g of air-dried powdered plant material with 500 ml of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol for 48 h at room temperature. After filtration, the extracts were concentrated to dryness, under reduced pressure at 40-45 ºC, using a Büchi rotatory evaporator, and then stored at 4ºC until used.

This species was also obtained in a traditional medicinal herb shop and was authenticated using Franco (1971). An infusion was prepared with this plant by adding 100 ml of boiling water to 10 g of the dried aerial parts and leaving it standing for 10 min. The infusion was sterilized through a 0.22 µm filter and stored at -20 ºC.

The stem bark of Pycnanthus angolensis was collected in São Tomé and Príncipe islands and extraction procedures were previously described in Abrantes et al (2008).

Nutridesintox® was obtained from Nutrialimentos Jesana S.L., Barcelona (http://www.nutricioncuantica.com). This nutritional supplement is composed by carrot, pumpkin, garlic, sesame and wheat. One capsule (725 mg) was dissolved in 2.5 ml of distilled water for 1 hour at 37 ºC and then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was used directly in the in vitro experiments.

 

2.3 In vitro experiments

2.3.1. Sample preparation

Hexane and dicloromethane (DCM) extracts of C. ambrosioides; DCM, ethanolic (EtOH) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts of P. angolensis were diluted in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to obtain the following concentrations 0.01; 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml.

Albendazole (Zentel, GlaxoSmithKline) was also diluted in DMSO to obtain the same concentrations.

Infusion of C. ambrosioides and the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox® were diluted in Hank’s Balanced Salts Solution (HBSS) (Sigma-Aldrich) to obtain the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µl/ml.

2.3.1 Nematocidal activity test on T. canis larvae

Toxocara canissecond-stage larvae were hatched according to De Savigny (1975). These larvae were maintained in HBSS medium at 37 ºC with an atmosphere of 5 % CO2. The in vitro test was preformed in 24-well microplates (30 larvae/well) with the test substances, albendazole as standard anthelmintic and HBSS medium and DMSO as solvent controls. All assays were preformed in duplicate. After 48 h of exposure the mobility of the larvae were examined using an inverted microscope. Nematocidal activity was evaluated in terms of relative mobility (RM). This method was originally developed by Kiuchi et al. (1987), however, due to the different types of movements observed during the assays, we had to adapt this system, by adding more scores as it is shown in Table 1.

 

2.4. In vivo Experiments

2.4.1 Animal infection

Male CD-1 mice with 8-week-old, weighing 35 g were obtained from the animal facilities of the Biotério do Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, and maintained under standard laboratory conditions, according to the European Union requirements (86/609/CEE). Mice were infected with 300 embryonated eggs by gastric intubation via a metal cannula coated with silicon. Seven mice were used in each experimental group.

 

2.4.2. Animal treatment

The test substances were selected based on the in vitro test results. All the treatments were administered daily from day 10 post-infection (p.i) to 12 p.i.. The extracts of C. ambrosioides and albendazole were administered orally using the following doses: hexane extract of C. ambrosioides (30 mg/Kg/ 0.1 ml); infusion of C. ambrosioides (15 ml/Kg/0.5 ml) and albendazole (800 mg/Kg/0.1 ml). For the nutritional supplement administration, mice were separated into individual cages with a mixture of standard food and the content of two capsules of Nutridesintox® per day.

All mice were sacrificed at 17th day p.i..

 

2.4.3. Larvae recovery from infected tissues

The brain, liver, lung and musculature were finely minced and incubated in a digestion fluid (pepsin 0.25 g, HCl 1 ml, H2O 100 ml) during 24 h at 37 ºC. The brain was incubated separately from the other organs. Larvae from the sediment were counted under a microscope.

 

2.4.4. ELISA test for determination of IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum

Blood was collected from the tail of mice from the different groups before the infection, before the treatment and on the 17thday p.i..

Toxocara canis excretion-secretion (TES) antigen was prepared according to De Savigny (1975).

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of IgM and IgG was performed in 96-well maxi-sorb plates (Nalgene Nunc). Plates were sensitised with 10 μl/ml of TES diluted in 0,1 M sodium carbonate buffer ( pH 9.6; 100 µl/well) and incubated for 30 min at 37 ºC, followed by overnight incubation at 4 ºC. Plates were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) containing 0.05% v/v Tween-20 (PBS/Tween). Plates were blocked with a solution of 1 % bovine serum albumin during 1h 30 min at room temperature; plates were then washed three times with PBS/Tween.

Serum samples were used at a dilution of 1:400 in PBS/Tween. After incubating 1 h at room temperature, plates were washed and 100 µl of anti-mouse IgM or IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) at a dilution of 1: 10.000 in PBS/Tween were added for 1h 30 min at room temperature. After the plates were washed, substrate (p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Sigma-Aldrich) was added to each well and the reaction was stopped by adding 3N NaOH. The optical density values were measured at 405 nm.

 

2.4.5. Histology

Livers and lungs of mice from the experimental groups were removed on 17thday p. i.. Tissues were fixed in 10 % formalin and embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5 µm of each organ were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Analysis of the sections was performed in a blinded fashion.

 

2.4.6. Statistical analysis

Statistical differences on the larvae burden between the groups were determined using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. The production of IgM and IgG antibodies between the groups was statistically tested using Kruskal-Wallis test, a Spearman’s correlation was also preformed. A probability value p < 0.005 was considered statistically significant. Analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 statistical package.

 

Results

3.1. In vitro experiment

Albendazole, extracts of C. ambrosioides, extracts of P. angolensis and an aqueous extract of Nutridesintox® were evaluated for their in vitro anthelmintic activity against T. canis second-stage larvae. The results of the nematocidal activity are presented in Table 2. In the negative control assays (HBSS medium and DMSO) a relative mobility of 100 % was measured, which indicates that these substances did not have any anthelmintic effect. At the highest concentration tested, except for the DCM extract of P. angolensis, all the other tested extracts had higher nematocidal activity than albendazole (Table 2). The aqueous extract of Nutridesintox® exerted the highest nematocidal activity, with 65 % of dead larvae (Fig. 1). All the extracts of C. ambrosioides showed similar relative mobility values at the highest concentration tested. Interestingly, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides was the only that exhibited nematocidal effect even at the lowest concentration. The extracts of P. angolensis showed a low anthelmintic effect (Table 2).

Thus, Nutridesintox®, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were chosen for the in vivo study.

 

3.2. In vivo experiment

The effect of the treatments was evaluated on the day 5 post-therapy. At this day, the accumulation of larvae in the brain was higher than in the other organs studied, except for the group treated with infusion of C. ambrosioides (Table 3). The groups treated respectively with albendazole, infusion of C. ambrosioides and with Nutridesintox® showed significant differences between larval numbers in the studied organs in comparison with the control (Table 3). However, these results did not show a reduction of larvae burden post therapy.

The levels of IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum of mice from control and treated groups are shown in Fig. 2. Using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, no significant differences in the levels of IgM (χ2= 4,048; df = 4; p = 0,399) and IgG (χ2= 9,202; df = 4; p = 0,056) between the different treatments were found. In addition, the analysis with the non-parametric Spearman correlation shows a non-linear association between the IgM levels and the number of larvae (Rs=-0,200; p=0,747) and the same was verified for the IgG levels and the number of larvae (Rs=0,100; p= 0,873), which may show a certain independence of these two variables.

The livers and lungs from mice of all experimental groups were analysed by histology. The uninfected controls that received treatment (albendazole, hexane extract and infusion of C. ambrosioides and Nutridesintox®) showed a normal hepatic and pulmonary structure and did not exhibit any observable signs of toxicity (data not shown). The liver sections of T.canis-infected mice treated with the infusion of C. ambrosioides and Nutridesintox® showed the typical inflammatory reaction produced by the migrating larvae, in comparison to the control this reaction seems to be more moderate (Fig. 3 B, D and F). The infected mice treated with albendazole and with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides did not show signs of inflammatory infiltrates (Fig. 3 C and E).

Regarding to the lung sections, the effects of the treatments were not so evident, as it was observed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in all experimental groups (Fig. 4). However, a slightly inflammatory reaction was observed for the group treated with the hexane extract (Fig. 4 E).

 

Discussion

Medicinal plants and other natural products have long been used in folk medicine. In the developed countries the depopulation of rural areas, led to the loss these ancient practises. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in natural products so as to have alternatives to conventional medicine and for the development of new drugs. In the present study we have investigated the anthelmintic activity of some plant extracts and a nutritional supplement against T. canis larvae.

Although, there is no consensual drug for the treatment of visceral larva migrans caused by T. canis, albendazol is the most commonly used drug (Sturchler et al., 1989; Magnaval et al., 2001; Pawlowski, 2001). However, it seems to have a weak action against the T. canis larvae in vitro, as it was demonstrated on our in vitro assays as well as in other studies (Satou et al., 2005; Márquez-Navarro et al., 2008).

From all the natural products tested the nutritional supplement was the one that showed the highest anthelmintic activity in vitro. This supplement is composed of carrot, garlic, pumpkin, sesame and wheat bran that are used in folk medicine as anthelmintics (Elisha et al.,1987; Waller et al., 2001; Salgueiro, 2005 Cunha et al., 2006). A synergistic effect between the components of this supplement might have been the responsible for the high anthelmintic activity observed in vitro. However more studies should be addressed in order to understand this in more detail.

The in vitro assay of the C. ambrosioides extracts showed interesting results.It is long known that the anthelmintic properties of this species are due to the monoterpene  ascaridole (Nelson, 1920). The hexane and DCM extracts, which are rich in this compound, showed an anthelmintic activity similar to the infusion of C. ambrosioides. Some authors suggest that the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous infusions of this species is due to more hydrophilic compounds and not to ascaridole (MacDonald et al., 2004; Gadano et al., 2006). MacDonald et al. (2004) verified that ascaridole-free infusions of C. ambrosioides retained the anthelmintic properties against Caenorhabditis elegans.

Even though the extracts of P. angolensis did not show anthelmintic activity they cannot be considered to be completely inactive. These results could have been due to the concentrations tested as the methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed to have a higher activity compared to albendazole. For this species other authors observed that ethanolic extracts had anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Diehl et al., 2004) and antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (do Céu de Madureira et al., 2002). Methanolic extracts were shown to have anthelmintic activity against Eudrilus eugeniae (Gbolade & Adeyemi, 2008) and leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major (Onocha et al., 2008).

Regarding to the in vivo evaluation the tested substances were not particularly effective. The brain was the most parasitized organ on the 17thday p. i., which indicates that the migratory larvae were in myotropic-neurotropic phase. Horiuchi et al. (2005) administrated albendazole (100 mg/kg) between the 13thto the 21st day p.i. and did not find significant differences between the numbers of larvae recovered from the brain in comparison to the control. Abo-Shehada & Herbert (1984) verified that the dose of 100 mg/kg of albendazole administrated on the 10th-13thday p.i. did not have anthelmintic efficacy. These authors suggested that larvae in this migratory phase are less susceptible to drug actions than those in hepato-pulmonary phase.

In the groups treated respectively with albendazole, infusion of C. ambrosioides and Nutridesintox® the number of recovered larvae was significantly higher than the number of recovered larvae from the control. Lescano et al. (2004) observed that in BALB/c mice treated with cyclosporine A (immunosuppressant drug) the burden of T. canis larvae was higher when compared to the control and that there was a delay in IgG production. One explanation to our results could be that these substances had exerted an immunosuppressant effect, therefore reducing the natural capacity of elimination of parasites. However, up to the fifth day post-treatment there were no significant differences in IgM and IgG production between the groups.

Interestingly, despite the fact that in the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides a reduction of the larvae burden has not been verified; it was observed an absence of inflammatory infiltrates in the liver sections and a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs. In the group treated with albendazole an absence of inflammatory infiltrates in the liver sections was also observed. This could be related to the fact that albendazole is metabolized in the liver to albendazole sulfoxide, which has an anthelmintic effect (Lacey, 1990).

The present results showed a correlation between the in vitro and in vivo experiments and ethnobotanical data, namely to the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. This study also highlights for the necessity of comparison of the two phases of larval migration and to have a multifactorial analysis (larvae counts, immunology, histology) when planning any search for new drugs for use in the treatment of toxocariasis.

 

Table 1. Criteria for evaluating the effect of drugs on Toxocara canis larvae

State of larva

Score (n)

Fast movement using the whole body

5

Intermediated movement using the whole body

4

Slow movement using the whole body

3

Moving with only a part of the body during the observation

2

Immobile but not dead

1

Dead

0

Motility index (MI) = ∑n Nn/ ∑Nn, where Nn : number of larvae with the score of n.

Relative mobility (RM) = MIsample/ MIcontrolx 100

 

 

Table 2. In vitro anthelminthic activity against Toxocara canis second-stage larvae.

Test substance

Relative Mobility (%)

 

 

Concentration (µg/ml)

Concentration (µl/ml)

 

0,01

0,05

0,1

25

50

100

 

Albendazole

91

77

77

 

 

 

 

C. ambrosioides - hexane

33

21

20

 

 

 

 

C. ambrosioides - DCM

72

30

22

 

 

 

 

C. ambrosioides – infusion

 

 

 

52

38

24

 

P. angolensis - DCM

71

98

85

 

 

 

 

P. angolensis - EtOH

72

62

53

 

 

 

 

P. angolensis - MeOH

95

67

42

 

 

 

 

Nutridesintox®

 

 

 

76

44

15

 

DCM: dicloromethane; EtOH: ethanol; MeOH: methanol

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Parasitol Res. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]

The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

Klimpel SAbdel-Ghaffar FAl-Rasheid KAAksu GFischer KStrassen BMehlhorn H.

Biodiversity and Climate Change Center (BiK-F), Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, 60325, Germany.

Abstract

The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good-if at all-efficacy in vivo.

PMID: 21110041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

Exp Parasitol. 2010 Oct;126(2):191-7. Epub 2010 May 4.

Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second-stage larvae in vitro and in vivo.

Reis MTrinca AFerreira MJMonsalve-Puello ARGrácio MA.

Unidade de Helmintologia e Malacologia Médicas/UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. mariana.a.reis@gmail.com

Abstract

The anthelmintic activity of extracts from Chenopodiumambrosioides, Pycnanthusangolensis and Nutridesintox was in vitro and in vivo investigated, against Toxocaracanis larvae. The in vitro assays results showed that the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox was the most effective, followed by C. ambrosioides extracts, hexane, dichloromethane and the infusion. P. angolensis extracts showed a lower anthelmintic activity compared to the other natural products. For the in vivo assays, Nutridesintox, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were administered orally to T. canis-infected mice, in single doses, during three consecutive days. The efficacy was evaluated on the 17th day post-infection, not only by counting T. canis larvae in the tissues but also by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The different treatments did not reduce the larvae burden and had no influence on the antibodies dynamic. Interestingly, a reduction on the inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. In conclusion, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides is of further research interest, as it showed an anthelmintic activity in vitro and a reduction on the inflammatory reaction produced by the infection of T. canis larvae in vivo.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20447397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


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