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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 18:38

Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45(12):992-9.

Phenolics and anthocyanins in berries of European cranberry and their antimicrobial activity.

Cesoniene LJasutiene ISarkinas A.

Kaunas Botanical Garden, Vytautas Magnus University, Z. E. Zilibero 6, 46324 Kaunas, Lithuania. l.cesoniene@bs.vdu.lt

European cranberry is a berry plant rich in biologically active substances, making it valued by both the phyto-pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this study was to examine the accumulation of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in berries of European cranberry and to assess their antibacterial activity.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different wild clones of European cranberry were investigated according to berry weight and the amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin profiles of extracts were evaluated by HPLC, whereas the antimicrobial properties were determined by the agar well diffusion method. A strong negative correlation between berry weight and the amount of anthocyanins was found. The amount of total phenolics among different cranberry clones in the field collection ranged from 224.0 mg/100 g to 498.0 mg/100 g, and the amount of total anthocyanins ranged from 40.7 mg/100 g to 207.3 mg/100 g. Quantitative HPLC-UV analysis revealed six anthocyanins in the berries of European cranberry, among which the anthocyanin peonidin-3-galactoside was most prevalent.

 

CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of the antimicrobial properties showed that European cranberry extracts inhibited the growth of wide range of human pathogenic bacteria, both gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis).

PMID: 20173403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 18:36

Phytother Res. 2011 Jan;25(1):122-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3240.

Inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against Streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells.

Huttunen SToivanen MArkko SRuponen MTikkanen-Kaukanen C.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. sanna.huttunen@uef.fi

 

Bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. Inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice has been found to have antiadhesive activity against different bacteria.

 

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum and Empetrum hermaphroditum L.) juice fractions against pneumococcal binding was tested using human bronchial cells (Calu-3) as an adhesion model. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the berry juice fractions was tested. It was found that the studied berry juice fractions had antiadhesion activity and cranberry juice was the most active.

 

The adhesion inhibition activity of cranberry juice was nearly 90% at a concentration of 8.7 mg/g of soluble solids. The antimicrobial activity of the studied berry juice fractions was found to be remarkable; pneumococcal growth was inhibited totally at a concentration of ∼86 mg/g.

 

Both antiadhesion and antimicrobial activities were reduced after solid-phase extraction of the berry juices, which may suggest molecular synergistic effects of the berry juice molecules against S. pneumoniae.

 

The findings indicate that cranberry, bilberry and crowberry juices have potential against pneumococcal infections.

 

 

Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 20625989 [PubMed - in process]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 17:29

Food Microbiol. 2010 Dec;27(8):985-91. Epub 2010 Jun 11.

Antiviral effects of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on foodborne viral surrogates--a time dependence study in vitro.

Su X, Howell AB, D'Souza DH.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

 

Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are widely known for their antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities.

 

The effect of CJ and cranberry PAC on the infectivity of foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage, and ϕX-174 (ssDNA) bacteriophage after 0 min to 1h at room temperature was evaluated.

Viruses at titers of 5log(10)PFU/ml were mixed with equal volumes of CJ at pH 2.6, CJ at pH 7.0, 0.30 mg/ml CJ PAC, 0.60mg/ml PAC, or water and incubated for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min, and 1h at room temperature.

Infectivity was determined using standard plaque assays.

 

The viral reduction rates of the four tested viruses were found to vary considerably.

Among the tested viruses, FCV-F9 titers were decreased the most by 5log(10)PFU/ml within 30 min. MS2 titers were decreased the least by only 1log(10)PFU/ml after 1h with CJ at pH 2.6 and 0.30 mg/ml PAC, and 0.5log(10)PFU/ml with CJ at pH 7.0 and 0.15 mg/ml PAC. MNV-1 and ϕ-X174 showed comparable titer reductions which was between that of FCV-F9 and MS2.

In most cases, viral reduction within the first 10 min of treatment accounted for ≥50% of the total reduction.

 

Transmission electron microscopy on FCV-F9 treated with CJ and PAC revealed structural changes. This study shows potential of using natural bioactive compounds for controlling foodborne viral diseases.

 

Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of CJ components and to understand the differences in viral titer reduction profiles.

 

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PMID: 20832675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 17:24

J Can Dent Assoc. 2010;76:a130.

Cranberry polyphenols: potential benefits for dental caries and periodontal disease.

Bonifait LGrenier D.

Laval University, Quebec, QC.

Over the past decade, cranberries and their molecular components have received increasing attention from researchers in human health.

 

In particular, the properties of the high-molecular-weight polyphenols isolated from cranberries have shown promise with regard to dental caries and periodontal disease.

 

These potential anticaries agents inhibit the production of organic acids and the formation of biofilms by cariogenic bacteria.

 

In addition, cranberry polyphenols may reduce the inflammatory response, as well as the production and activity of proteolytic enzymes contributing to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease.

 

The polyphenols of cranberries also interfere with various activities (including formation of biofilm and adhesion) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis.

 

This article summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the potential of cranberry polyphenols to prevent and/or treat diseases of the mouth.


PMID: 20943032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 17:21

Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan;63(1):109-20.

North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

MacLean MAScott BEDeziel BANunnelley MCLiberty AMGottschall-Pass KTNeto CCHurta RA.

Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

 

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells.

 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. As flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in DU145 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells involves apoptosis.

 

The results showed that induction of apoptosis in these cells occurred in response to treatment with whole cranberry extract and occurred through caspase-8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein to truncated Bid resulting in cytochrome-C release from the mitochondria.

Subsequent activation of caspase-9 ultimately resulted in cell death as characterized by DNA fragmentation.

Increased Par-4 protein expression was observed, and this is suggested to be at least partly responsible for caspase-8 activation.

Proanthocyanidin-enriched and flavonol-enriched fractions of cranberry also increased caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity, suggesting that these compounds play a possible role in apoptosis induction.

These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and these findings further establish the potential value of cranberry phytochemicals as possible agents against prostate cancer.

 

PMID: 21161819 [PubMed - in process]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 17:17

Lutter contre les cystites grâce à la canneberge

E-santé, avril 2011, www.e-sante.fr

Les études portant sur l'efficacité de la canneberge contre les infections urinaires montrent que le mécanisme d'action de ce fruit est tout simplement mécanique.

 

Le « vaccinium macrocarpon » contient des antioxydants particuliers, appelés proanthocyanidines (PAC), qui viennent se coller aux bactéries responsables de la plupart des cystites, les escherichia coli, et les empêchent de déclencher l'infection.

 

On manque encore de preuves scientifiques formelles sur l'efficacité des canneberges. Pourtant les médecins n'hésitent pas à recommander leur absorption pour des questions de tolérance, afin d'éviter le recours systématique aux antibiotiques.

 

Toutefois il faut savoir que les compléments alimentaires à base de canneberge ne sont pas tous efficaces face aux escherichia coli.

 

Certains d'entre eux ne comportent pas assez de proanthocyanidines pour prévenir les infections urinaires. Pour rappel, les autorités sanitaires françaises recommandent une dose de 36 mg de proanthocyanidines par jour, soit l'équivalent d'un verre de 300 ml de jus de canneberge.

 

 

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2011 Jan-Mar;25(1):27-35.

Effect of phytochemical concentrations on biological activities of cranberry extracts.

Menghini L, Leporini L, Scanu N, Pintore G, La Rovere R, Di Filippo ES, Pietrangelo T, Fulle S.

Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università di Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy. lmenghini@unich.it

 

Plants of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) furnish edible fruits and derivates that have been used for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections.

In the present work we compare two commercial extracts that contain proanthocyanins (PACs) at 4 percent and 20 percent for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antiradical and protective properties against oxidative stress on cell lines. Both extracts showed antimicrobial activity (MIC values range 3-100 microg/ml). Extract at 20 percent PACs showed higher antiproliferative activity against HepG2 and MCF7 cells, but not against C2C12 cells.

Both extracts showed a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging capacity, and a protective effect on the cell damage was also revealed by reduction of intracellular active oxygen species release.

Cranberry extracts confirmed antioxidative properties and efficacy in reduction of cell viability that resulted stronger against tumor cells.

The pretreatment with cranberry extracts, furthermore, reveal an increase of cell resistance against oxidative stress, suggesting a potential role as a dietary supplement in preventing free-radical damage.

The proanthocyanidin content is critical to determine the extract efficacy.

In cellular experiments the extracts resulted clearly differentiated in their activity, and the activity was strongly influenced by PACs content.

Only in DPPH test the free radical scavenging activity seemed to be directly related to proanthocyanidins content.

 

PMID: 21382271 [PubMed - in process]

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010 Nov;32(11):1082-101.

Recurrent urinary tract infection.

[Article in English, French]

Epp ALarochelle ALovatsis DWalter JEEaston WFarrell SAGirouard LGupta CHarvey MARobert MRoss SSchachter JSchulz JAWilkie DEhman WDomb SGagnon AHughes OKonkin J,Lynch JMarshall CSociety of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

OBJECTIVE: to provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

 

OPTIONS: continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives.

 

EVIDENCE: a search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions.

 

VALUES: this update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).

 

OPTIONS: recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics.

PMID: 21176321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 



 

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 15:36

Aging Clin Exp Res. 2010 Aug 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on parameters of oxidative stress in different regions of aging rat brain after acute hypoxia.

Martin R, Mozet C, Martin H, Welt K, Engel C, Fitzl G.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig.

 

Background and aims:

Neurodegenerative processes of aging shall be associated with oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS).

This study investigates the influence of age and of acute respiratoric hypoxia on parameters of oxidative stress in different brain regions of Wistar rats, and protective effects of Ginkgo extract (EGb 761) as radical scavenger.

 

Methods: Biopsies of frontal and temporal cortices, cerebellum and brainstem of young and old rats (each group n= 6-8 : normoxic-hypoxic; unprotected -EGb-protected) were analyzed for malondialdehyd (MDA) level, superoxid dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathion (GSH) content, and creatin kinase (CK) activity.

 

Experimental hypoxia: downregulation of oxygen partial pressure to 5 vol. % for 20 minutes. EGb application: daily 100 mg/kg b.w. in drinking water for 3 months. Results: Effects of age: In temporal cortex, cerebellum and brainstem most of the oxidative stress parameters are increased but not in frontal cortex; after additional hypoxia SOD and GSH are diminished in old temporal cortex and brainstem.

EGb-treatment causes contradictory alterations in young, old and hypoxic brain regions. Minor effects are seen in old hypoxic brain, some protective effects in old normoxic brainstem and cerebellum.

 

Conclusions: The old brain appears to be well adapted to chronic oxidative stress, but shows a sufficient adaptation to the specific conditions of short hypoxia, too. The EGb (Ginkgo extract)  protecting effect is especially remarkable in brainstem and cerebellum.

 

PMID: 20802257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 15:05

Mucosal Immunology (2011) 4, 252–260; doi:10.1038/mi.2011.13; published online 23 March 2011

Role of innate cytokines in mycobacterial infection

A M Cooper1, K D Mayer-Barber2 and A Sher2

  1. 1Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York, USA
  2. 2Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Immunobiology Section, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Correspondence: AM Cooper, (acooper@trudeauinstitute.org); A Sher, (asher@niaid.nih.gov)

Received 12 January 2011; Accepted 11 February 2011; Published online 23 March 2011.stract

Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines and lipid mediators that strongly influence the outcome of mycobacterial infection. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the lung is a critical site for this interaction.

 

Here, we review current information on the role of the major innate cytokine pathways both in controlling initial infection as well as in promoting and maintaining adaptive T-cell responses that mediate host resistance or immunopathology.

 

Understanding this important feature of the host–pathogen interaction can provide major insights into the mechanisms of virulence and can lead to new approaches for immunological intervention in tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases.

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19 avril 2011 2 19 /04 /avril /2011 15:02

Mucosal Immunology(2011) 4, 246–251; doi:10.1038/mi.2011.11; published online 16 March 2011

The impact of mucosal infections on acquisition and progression of tuberculosis

S Perry1, R Hussain2 and J Parsonnet1

.                1Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

.                2Department of Molecular Biology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence: S Perry, (shnperry@stanford.edu)

 

More than one-third of the world's population, or over 2 billion people, are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative pathogen of tuberculosis in humans.

 

Why only 10% of those infected develop active disease while the remainder harbor latent infection remains one of the greatest scientific and public health mysteries.

 

Bacterial persistence is characterized by a dynamic state of immunological tolerance between pathogen and host.

 

The critical role of CD4+ T cells in defense against intracellular pathogens became evident during epidemiological studies of HIV-1 infection, which showed a clear inverse relationship between CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood and increased risk of infection with M. tuberculosis, pneumocystis and Toxoplasma gondii.

 

There is also growing evidence of a common mucosal immune system, whereby immune cells activated at one mucosal site may disseminate to remote effector sites.

 

In this commentary, we review emerging evidence from human studies that the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection is influenced by concurrent mucosal infections, using Helicobacter pylori and geohelminths as examples.

 

Understanding how the complexity of microbial exposures influences host immunity may have important implications for vaccine development and therapeutic interventions.

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18 avril 2011 1 18 /04 /avril /2011 12:15

Acta Med Indones. 2010 Jul;42(3):130-4.

Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male.

Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, Fias.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University School of Medicine - Prof. Dr. RD Kandou General Hospital, Jl. Raya Tanawangko, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

 

 

AIM: to study the efficacy of Nigella sativa in central obese men on serum free testosterone, body weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid, uric acid, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and side effects in the treatment group compare to control.

 

METHODS: an experimental, clinical test, double blinded with placebo control, pre-test and post-test design. Subjects are 30-45 years old, divided into the treatment and control groups, and evaluated weekly for 3 months.

Data obtained were subjective complaints, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, serum free testosterone, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, uric acid, creatinin, SGOT and SGPT, adiponectin, and hs-CRP. Data collected from March 2007 to June 2007 at Prof.Dr.RD Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive for subjects characteristic and drug's side effect, t independent to compare between two parametric independent variables, Mann-Whitney U to compare between two non-parametric independent variables, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to compare between two non-parametric dependent variables.

 

RESULTS:

 

In the treatment group, complaints related to central obesity disappear in first week, very significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, insignificant reduction in serum free testosterone, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol-HDL, uric acid, hs-CRP, and insignificant increase of adiponectin.

 

On comparison between both groups, we found a very significant reduction on body weight and waist circumference, but the insignificant reduction on serum free testosterone, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the unsignificant increase of adiponectin, meanwhile the reduction of serum free testosterone in the treatment group was smaller than the control group, that means Nigella sativa could inhibit the decreasing of serum free testosterone.

No side effects were detected in the treatment group.

 

CONCLUSION: Although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM.

It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.

 

PMID: 20724766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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