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20 avril 2012 5 20 /04 /avril /2012 06:41
Difficile de ne pas être émus par le reportage diffusé mardi soir en seconde partie de soirée sur France 2, intitulé sans détour : « La mort est dans le pré ». Ce documentaire réalisé par Eric Guéret a en effet choisi d'aller à la rencontre de ceux et celles qui ont consacré leur vie, épuisé leur jeunesse au travail de la terre et aux soins de leur bêtes. Le fil rouge de ce film consacré au danger des pesticides est ainsi la voix d'une femme laissée veuve après la mort de son époux, un agriculteur victime d'un cancer probablement favorisé par l'exposition aux pesticides. De même, la caméra d'Eric Guéret s'attarde longtemps sur le cas poignant de cet homme âgé de seulement 47 ans et qui se bat lui aussi contre un cancer. « Quand on découvrira toute la vérité sur les dangers des pesticides, ce sera un scandale pire que celui du sang contaminé » affirme-t-il. Telle est aussi la thèse défendue par le film d'Eric Guéret, qui dénonce l'impuissance des pouvoirs publics face aux industriels de la chimie et qui démontre également comment les agriculteurs sont parfois leurs propres bourreaux. « Aujourd'hui, on se retrouve avec une communication qui nous explique qu'il n'y a qu'un seul modèle possible qui est celui de l'agriculture chimique et de l'agriculture intensive. Les agriculteurs en sont eux-mêmes pour la plupart convaincus, et ils ont beau en crever, ils sont incapables d'en sortir. Voilà globalement ce que dénonce le film », explique le réalisateur, cité par le Monde. France 2, « La mort est dans le pré », mardi 17 avril, 22h40
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20 avril 2012 5 20 /04 /avril /2012 06:28
Analysis: Translational Notes - Neurology SciBX 5(16); doi:10.1038/scibx.2012.406 Building tools against autism by Lev Osherovich, Senior Writer An academic-industry consortium headed by King's College London and Roche launched this month with €29.6 million ($38.9 million) to develop research tools and diagnostics for autism spectrum disorder and to help select clinical endpoints for future autism trials. Published online April 19 2012
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19 avril 2012 4 19 /04 /avril /2012 16:57

Chez l’homme, la maltraitance dans l’enfance, en entraînant une dérégulation du gène récepteur des glucocorticoïdes (NR3C1) observée dans les cellules sanguines, perturbe la gestion du stress à l’âge adulte, ce qui peut déclencher le développement de psychopathologies. 

 

C’est la conclusion d’une étude menée par une équipe de chercheurs de la Faculté de médecine de l’Université de Genève (UNIGE) et des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG), qui a fait l’objet d’une publication dans la revue Translational Psychiatry.

 

La maltraitance dans l’enfance est souvent associée à des troubles de nature psychiatrique à l’âge adulte. 

 

Le groupe de recherche du professeur Alain Malafosse, au Département de psychiatrie de la Faculté de médecine de l’UNIGE, en collaboration avec le Département de médecine génétique et de développement, travaille sur les interactions entre des facteurs génétiques et environnementaux et le rôle que celles-ci peuvent jouer dans l’origine et l'évolution des troubles psychiatriques. 

 

L’équipe genevoise a démontré que, chez l’homme, l’association entre la maltraitance infantile et certaines psychopathologies adultes résultait d’une modification des mécanismes de régulation des gènes (modification épigénétique) impliqués dans la gestion du stress.

 

101 sujets adultes souffrant d’un trouble de la personnalité borderline, caractérisé par une instabilité dans les relations interpersonnelles, les émotions et l'impulsivité notamment, ont participé à l’étude. 

 

Les chercheurs de l’UNIGE ont observé un pourcentage sensiblement plus élevé de modifications épigénétiques sur l’ADN, prélevé à partir de cellules sanguines, chez les sujets qui ont été maltraités dans leur enfance (abus physique, sexuel et émotionnel, carences affectives), par rapport à ceux n’ayant pas subi de tels abus.

Le stress généré par des abus subis dans l’enfance induit une modification épigénétique du gène récepteur des glucocorticoïdes (NR3C1), appelée méthylation génétique par les scientifiques, qui agit sur l’axe hypothalamique-pituitaire-adrénal. 

 

Cet axe intervient dans le processus de gestion du stress et, lorsqu’il est altéré, perturbe la gestion du stress à l’âge adulte et peut entraîner le développement de psychopathologies telles que le trouble de la personnalité borderline. 

 

Les mécanismes de régulation du stress cérébral peuvent être perturbés de manière durable en cas de maltraitances répétées dans l'enfance.

« Nous avons par ailleurs relevé que plus la sévérité de l’abus était importante, plus la méthylation du gène était considérable », précise Ariane Giacobino, du Département de médecine génétique et de développement de l’UNIGE.

« Si notre étude était centrée sur le lien entre la maltraitance infantile et certaines psychopathologies, il est important de noter que la causalité d’autres traumatismes violents, tels que l’expérience d’une catastrophe naturelle ou d’un crash aérien, pourrait être étudiée et mener à des conclusions similaires. 

En outre, le résultat de ces recherches met en avant l’utilité de l’étude du génome pour mieux comprendre et soigner les troubles psychiatriques », explique Nader Perroud, chef de clinique scientifique au Département de psychiatrie de l’UNIGE et premier auteur de l’étude.

   Genève, le 12 janvier 2012

    

   CONTACT

Alain Malafosse : 022 305 53 11 ou en lui écrivant à : Alain.Malafosse@unige.ch

Nader Perroud : 022 305 45 11 ou en lui écrivant à : Nader.Perroud@unige.ch

Ariane Giacobino : 022 379 59 47 ou en lui écrivant à : Ariane.Giacobino@unige.ch

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19 avril 2012 4 19 /04 /avril /2012 12:16

 

 

 

 

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FDA Safety Communication: Bacteria Found in Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel Poses Risk of Infection

Date Issued: April 18, 2012

Audience:

  • Hospital and clinic administrators, risk managers, infection control practitioners, purchasing departments, surgical centers, medical offices.
  • Health care professionals using or referring patients for ultrasound procedures (e.g., radiologists, urologists, gastroenterologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, internists, chiropractors, nurses, physical therapists, and sonographers).

Product:
Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel, manufactured by Pharmaceutical Innovations Inc. is a non-sterile gel used in ultrasound procedures to improve the transmission of the ultrasound signal from the transducer to the body.  

Purpose:
To alert health care professionals and facilities to STOP using Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel manufactured June through December 2011 because of bacterial contamination. The contamination was found in lot numbers:

  • 060111
  • 090111
  • 120111

These lots are sold in 250 milliliter (mL) bottles and 5 liter (l) dispensing containers.

Summary of Problem and Scope:
The FDA received a report from a hospital that 16 patients had developed colonization or infection with the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  Each of these patients were examined with transesophageal ultrasound probes using Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel. Upon investigation, the ultrasound gel was found to be contaminated with the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca.

Although Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel is not labeled as either sterile or non-sterile, it is NOT sterile.

At this time, the FDA is concerned about contamination of Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel lot numbers 060111 through 120111. These lots contain both 250 milliliter (mL) bottles and 5 liter (L) dispensing containers of gel. The lot number is printed on each bottle of gel. You cannot identify contaminated products by looking at the gel. The lots were manufactured June through December 2011 by Pharmaceutical Innovations.

Not every patient exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca bacteria in Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel will develop colonization (the presence of bacteria at a site without any signs of infection) or infection, but the risk remains present.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found most often in water and soil. Patients exposed to the bacteria on the surface of their skin could develop inflammatory dermatitis, even on intact skin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not usually found in places such as the upper airway, the lower GI tract or the female genital tract—if it is introduced to those places, it could colonize or cause an infection.

Invasive biopsy procedures can carry bacteria into tissues, and could cause an abscess or sepsis. The bacteria can also move from one site to another. For example, if Pseudomonas aeruginosa is introduced into the upper airway through a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) procedure and begins to grow, it may cause no symptoms. However, if it is accidentally aspirated into the lower airway, it could cause tracheobronchitis or pneumonia.

Klebsiella bacteria is often found in the digestive tract where they do not often cause infection; however, when the lungs or other tissues are exposed to Klebsiella bacteria, either minor problems or more serious infections such as pneumonia, wound infection or bloodstream infections could occur.

Recommendations for Health Care Professionals and Facilities Regarding Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel:

  • Do NOT use Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel from lot numbers 060111 through 120111.
  • Identify patients who have been exposed to these lots of Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel. Review the procedures they underwent and the outcomes of those procedures. Then, determine if further evaluation is needed.
  • Contact Pharmaceutical Innovations Inc. at 973-242-2900 (897 Frelinghuysen Avenue, Newark, NJ 07114) if you have questions and to report adverse events associated with use of the contaminated gel.
  • Refer to your facility’s infection control or other risk control procedures for appropriate disposal of Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel. Opened and unopened containers of the contaminated gel should be handled as bio-hazardous materials and disposed of following the proper procedures.

Recommendations for Health Care Professionals Regarding All Ultrasound Transmission Gels:

  • Be aware that the only ultrasound gel that is sterile is unopened ultrasound gel containers/packets labeled as sterile.  Ultrasound gel products that are labeled as non-sterile or that are not labeled at all with respect to sterility are NOT sterile.
  • Review your policies and clinical practice standards to ensure you are always using sterile ultrasound gel for those procedures that require it.
    • Check the instructions for use as well as hospital/facility policies, to determine if sterile ultrasound gel is needed for a particular procedure or if non-sterile ultrasound gel is recommended for procedures using ultrasound transducers.
    • Use sterile ultrasound gel as recommended in clinical practice standards for all sterile body site procedures and any invasive procedures using ultrasound-guided biopsy.
    • Use sterile ultrasound gel for procedures with mucosal contact where biopsy is not planned but any possible added bioburden would be undesirable or mucosal trauma is likely (e.g., transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) procedures, transvaginal ultrasound procedures without biopsy, transrectal ultrasound procedures without biopsy).

    FDA: Clinicians Urged to Stop Using Certain Ultrasound Gel

    Specific lots found to have been contaminated by bacteria; 16 patients known to be affected

     

    pastedGraphic.pdf

    WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals, clinics, and health care professionals should immediately discontinue using Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel due to risk of bacterial contamination in certain batches, according to a safety communication issued April 18 by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.

    Sixteen patients developed colonization or infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa following exposure to the gel during ultrasound. An investigation revealed the ultrasound gel to be contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause inflammatory dermatitis, and Klebsiella oxytoca, which can result in pneumonia and other series infections when exposed to lung or other tissues.

    The contaminated lots, numbers 060111, 090111, and 120111, were manufactured between June and December 2011 by Pharmaceutical Innovations and can be identified only by the lot numbers on their containers.

    According to the FDA, clinicians are urged to "NOT use Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel from lot numbers 060111 through 120111; identify patients who have been exposed to these lots; review the procedures they underwent and the outcomes of those procedures; then, determine if further evaluation is needed."

    • Be aware that once a container of sterile or non-sterile ultrasound gel is opened, it is no longer sterile and contamination during ongoing use is possible.
      • Use open containers of ultrasound gel promptly for low risk procedures on intact skin and for low risk patients.
      • Never refill or "top off" containers of ultrasound gel during use. The original container should be used and then discarded.
      • Review clinical policies for the handling of ultrasound gel products, and take these recommendations into account when choosing the ultrasound gel product, size and type.

    FDA Activities:
    The FDA collected and tested unopened bottles of Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel at the reporting hospital and at Pharmaceutical Innovations Inc.’s facility.  The FDA’s testing revealed that the finished product contained significant amounts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. This result suggests that the source of this contamination occurred during the manufacturing process.

    On April 18, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued a news release notifying the public about the seizure of Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel located at Pharmaceutical Innovations, Inc. Newark, N.J.

    Reporting Problems to the FDA:
    Prompt reporting of adverse events can help the FDA identify and better understand the risks associated with medical devices. If you suspect a problem with Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel, we encourage you to file a voluntary report through MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting program.  Healthcare personnel employed by facilities that are subject to the FDA's user facility reporting requirements should follow the reporting procedures established by their facilities. Device manufacturers must comply with the Medical Device Reporting (MDR) regulations.

    To help us learn as much as possible about the adverse events associated with Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel, please include the following information in your reports, if available:

    • Lot number
    • Bottle size
    • Date of adverse event
    • Type of ultrasound procedure
    • Details of the adverse event and medical intervention (if required)

    Contact Information:
    If you have questions about this communication, please contact the Division of Small Manufacturers, International, and Consumer Assistance (DSMICA) at DSMICA@FDA.HHS.GOV, 800-638-2041 or 301-796-7100.

    This document reflects the FDA’s current analysis of available information, in keeping with our commitment to inform the public about ongoing safety reviews of medical devices.

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    19 avril 2012 4 19 /04 /avril /2012 12:08

    Des chercheurs américains ont identifié dans le sang des marqueurs biologiques de la dépression chez l'adolescent, ouvrant la voie à une nouvelle méthode de diagnostic rapide.

     

    La dépression sera-t-elle un jour diagnostiquée aussi simplement que le diabète ou le cholestérol, par un simple test sanguin? 

     

    C'est en tout cas l'espoir que fait naître une étude américaine réalisée sur des adolescents dépressifs et publiée cette semaine dans la revue Translational Psychiatry .

     

    Le diagnostic de la dépression se fait aujourd'hui sur des critères subjectifs, qui sont liés à la capacité du patient à raconter correctement ses symptômes et dépendent aussi de l'aptitude du médecin, qui n'est pas forcément un spécialiste lors de la première consultation, à les interpréter. 

     

    La distinction entre la forme dite majeure de dépression, celle qui est la plus grave et de simples vagues à l'âme est aussi importante, et pourrait éviter la prescription de nombreux médicaments antidépresseurs inutiles.

     

    «Le diagnostic de la dépression chez les adolescents est compliquée par le fait qu'elle peut se cacher derrière des troubles bien plus variés que chez l'adulte, allant des difficultés scolaires à des fugues en passant par la prise de drogues», précise le Dr Alain Braconnier, psychiatre spécialiste de la dépression chez les jeunes.

     

    Les chercheurs ont réalisé des tests sanguins à l'aveugle sur 14 adolescents déjà diagnostiqués avec une dépression majeure, et 14 autres non-déprimés, tous âgés de 15 à 19 ans. 

     

    Les recherches ont été focalisées sur 26 marqueurs génétiques présents dans le sang et déjà identifiés comme caractéristiques d'états dépressifs sévères lors d'études menées sur des rats.

     

    Une fiabilité élevée

     

    Onze des marqueurs choisis ont permis de faire la distinction entre les jeunes déprimés et ceux en bonne santé, avec un niveau de fiabilité plutôt élevé. 

     

    «Ces 11 gènes ne sont probablement que le haut de l'iceberg car la dépression est une maladie complexe, mais cela indique clairement que nous pouvons créer un test sanguin de diagnostic pour la dépression», affirme Eva Redei, psychiatre à la Northwestern University à Chicago (États-Unis) et auteur principal de l'étude.

     

    De manière totalement isolée, une entreprise privée, Ridge Diagnostics, travaille également à la mise au point d'un test sanguin pour la dépression, et a obtenu des résultats prometteurs sur 70 adultes.

     

    Le spécialiste français Alain Braconnier estime que des tests biologiques ne sont pas forcément indispensables, et ne pourront de toute façon se substituer à un examen clinique, mais il reconnaît «qu'ils pourraient être utiles dans des cas très difficiles où l'on peut hésiter beaucoup entre deux conditions.»

     

    L'étude sur les adolescents présente la particularité de pouvoir distinguer deux sous-types de dépression, entre les patients souffrant seulement de dépression et ceux qui souffrent aussi de troubles anxieux. 

     

    «C'est une première étape qui va nous permettre de voir quel traitement sera le plus efficace pour un patient donné», précise le Dr Eva Redei, qui veut poursuivre les tests sur un échantillon plus grand et plus varié.

     

    Cyrille Vanlerberghe - le 18/04/2012

     

    Researchers Develop Blood Test for Depression

    Group of biomarkers accurately identified teens with mood disorder in small study

     

    TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have developed a blood test that could one day help diagnose teens with depression.

     

    To create the test, researchers identified 26 potential biological markers for depression

    Then they tested the markers in a small group of teens and found that a handful of them could distinguish the teens with major depression from those without depression.

     

    The research was published April 17 in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

     

    "I think it would be more accurate to diagnose depression with a blood test," said study author Eva Redei, a professor of psychiatry at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The biomarkers now have to be studied in a larger group of teens, she added.

    Currently the diagnosis for depression is subjective and involves doctors talking with patients about their moods. The evaluation is especially tricky in teens because this is a trying time emotionally to start with, Redei said.

    Having an objective diagnosis that relies on biomarkers could also make it an easier diagnosis for teens to hear and ease some of the stigma associated with depression.

     

    "It would bring this disease into the same family of other serious illnesses," Redei said. "It would be much more difficult for somebody to say, 'Just snap out of it' or 'Get yourself together.'"

    Between 17 percent and 25 percent of adolescents and young adults experience depression, according to study background information. 

     

    Teens who develop depression have a worse prognosis, marked by illness, substance abuse and suicidal behavior, compared to people who are diagnosed later in life.

     

    The current study involved 28 white and black teens in the Chicago area. Half of the teens had depression.

     

    The researchers compared the levels of the 26 potential biomarkers in blood samples from the teens and found that 11 of them were present at higher or lower levels among the teens with depression.

     

    In addition, they found that 18 of the biomarkers could accurately predict whether teens with depression also had an anxiety disorder.

    In a clinical setting, a screening test for depression would involve a panel of biomarkers, Redei explained. Some of them would give the doctor a yes/no answer about whether the teen could have depression and should be further evaluated, while others could reveal information about the depression and how to treat it, such as its severity and whether it is accompanied by anxiety.

     

    "The hope is that not only can these tests identify who is depressed, but they also potentially discriminate between different types of depression," Redei said.

     

    But first Redei's group has to determine whether their biomarkers are accurate in a large group of teens representing a range of racial backgrounds and from different areas of the country. They are now beginning these studies.

     

    Larger studies will tell us a lot about how useful these biomarkers could be, said Dr. Sheldon Preskorn, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita. Anytime you test a number of potential biomarkers on a small group of people you are going to find some biomarkers that look clinically important, he added.

     

    But having a screen to help identify who has depression could be hugely helpful, Preskorn said. "This kind of approach is somewhat the holy grail of psychology."

     

    There are as yet no biomarkers available for diagnosing depression at any age.

     

    Redei's group is also testing the biomarkers in adults. Although it is too soon to tell for sure, she thinks that some will end up being helpful for diagnosing depression in adults.

     

    The group originally identified the set of 26 candidate biomarkers by studying rats with conditions that mimic depression in humans. And like in humans, the condition in rats is linked either to genetic or environmental factors.

     

    The researchers looked in these animals at a type of molecule called a transcript, which is an intermediate molecule between a gene and its corresponding protein. Differences in the level of transcripts indicate changes in gene expression.

    They found 11 transcripts that were different in the blood and brain of animals that were bred to be in a perpetual state of depression compared to normal animals. In addition, they found 15 transcripts that increased or decreased in groups of rats with environment-induced depression.

    Altogether the changes that the researchers found were in genes that were "most unexpected," Redei said, adding that, "This just characterized how little we know about depression."

     

    The discovery of these biomarkers gives researchers a new list of targets to pursue as potential antidepressants, Redei said.

     

    Having a reliable blood-based diagnostic for depression could also open the door to treating people before symptoms appear, Preskorn said. 

     

    "You might want to look at high-risk populations, like if you have a family history of depression."

    This approach is similar to how doctors manage other conditions like heart disease, Preskorn said. "If you know that a person has high cholesterol and high lipids, then you don't wait till the person develops atherosclerosis to start the statin drug."

     

     

    More information

    You can learn more about diagnosing depression at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health.

    SOURCES: Eva Redei, Ph.D., professor, psychiatry and behavioral sciences, Northwestern Medicine, Chicago; Sheldon Preskorn, M.D., professor, psychiatry, University of Kansas-Wichita School of Medicine and chief scientific officer, clinical trial unit, University of Kansas Medical Center; April 17, 2012, Translational Psychiatry

    Last Updated: April 17, 2012

     

    By Carina Storrs
    HealthDay Reporter


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    19 avril 2012 4 19 /04 /avril /2012 07:02
    Le syndrome d’apnées obstructives du sommeil (SAOS) est associé à des pauses respiratoires plus ou moins prolongées qui provoquent des décharges de noradrénaline via l’activation du système sympathique. De ce fait, la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque (VFC) s’en trouve accrue. Pour sa part, la maladie de Parkinson idiopathique (MPI) s’accompagne précocement d’un dysfonctionnement sympathique qui peut retentir sur la VFC. L’association d’une MPI et d’un SAOS n’est pas exceptionnelle, mais dans ce cas, qu’en est-il de la réponse cardiaque tributaire du système neurovégétatif ? Une étude du type cas-témoins a comparé deux groupes de sujets : 1) 62 atteints d’une MPI avec (n=27) ou sans (n=35) SAOS ; 2) 62 témoins appariés selon l’âge, avec (n=37) ou sans SAOS (n=25). Diverses variables ont été utilisées pour apprécier au mieux la VFC : intervalle RR moyen, déviation standard de tous les RR normaux/normaux (DSNN), bandes spectrales haute et basse fréquence (HF et BF), rapport BF/HF. Tous ces paramètres ont été mesurés de manière automatique à partir de l’enregistrement polysomnographique réalisé pendant toute une nuit, ceci au cours de chaque phase du sommeil (REM et non REM). Les variables en question se sont avérées similaires en cas de MPI avec ou sans SAOS. En revanche, dans le groupe des sujets non parkinsoniens, la VFC s’est avérée plus élevée lorsqu'il existait un SAOS qu'en son absence, quelle que soit la phase du sommeil. En outre, une corrélation a été établie entre la VFC et la sévérité du SAOS, mais uniquement chez les sujets non parkinsoniens. Si l’on en croit les résultats de cette étude, la réponse sympathique au SAOS serait émoussée en cas de MPI, ce qui cadre bien avec une notion clinique classique : cette maladie neuro-dégénérative s’accompagne d’une dénervation sympathique perceptible au niveau cardiaque. Dr Phillipe Tellier 18/04/2012 Valko PO et coll. : Heart rate variability in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012 ; publication avancée en ligne le 24 février 2012
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    19 avril 2012 4 19 /04 /avril /2012 06:58
    Il est maintenant clairement démontré que la grande majorité des individus qui entreprennent un régime amaigrissant (RA), équilibré ou pas, ont ensuite tendance à revenir à leur poids initial voire à le dépasser. L'effet à long terme du RA semble donc paradoxal, puisqu'il conduit à l'inverse de l'objectif désiré. Cette reprise de poids associée au RA est-elle due à une prédisposition génétique à la prise de poids ou bien à la perte de poids initiée en début de RA ? L'objectif de cette étude finlandaise menée chez des jumeaux est donc de déterminer si à patrimoine génétique égal un RA peut déclencher à long terme une prise de poids excessive. Près de 2 000 paires de jumeaux, dont 542 monozygotes, sans antécédents médicaux ont été incluses dans l'étude. Leur IMC a été relevé à l'âge de 16 et 25 ans, ainsi que le nombre de RA entrepris ayant permis une perte de poids supérieure à 5 kg (les réponses allant d'aucune fois à plus de 5 fois) À l'âge de 16 ans, l'IMC moyen était de 20,3 kg/m² tandis qu'à 25 ans il était passé à 23 kg/m². Globalement (monozygotes et dizygotes réunis), le risque de présenter un surpoids (IMC > 25 kg/m²) à l'âge de 25 ans était significativement plus important chez ceux qui avaient entrepris au moins un RA par rapport à ceux qui n'en avaient jamais fait (Odd ratio allant de 1,82 à 5,22 en fonction du sexe et du nombre de RA entrepris). Concernant les seuls jumeaux monozygotes, l'évolution de L'IMC de 16 à 25 ans pour les paires concordantes vis à vis du RA (c'est-à-dire lorsque les deux jumeaux avaient fait un RA ou bien lorsque les deux n'en avaient jamais fait) est identique. Par contre pour les paires discordantes vis-à-vis du RA, le jumeau qui avait entrepris un RA avait un IMC plus élevé de 0,4 kg/m² à 25 ans que celui de son jumeau n’ayant jamais fait de régime, malgré un IMC identique à l'âge de 16 ans (p<0,05). Selon les auteurs, entreprendre un ou plusieurs RA successifs conduit, comme anticipé, au résultat paradoxal d'une prise de poids à long terme. Les résultats observés chez les jumeaux monozygotes suggèrent que cette reprise de poids plus importante après un RA se ferait indépendamment des facteurs génétiques, le mécanisme restant à déterminer. En pratique, il est prématuré de conseiller aux personnes obèses de ne pas (ou plus) tenter de perdre du poids. En effet, maigrir quitte à regrossir par la suite est-ce réellement plus délétère pour la santé que de ne jamais perdre un gramme ? Le débat reste ouvert. Dr Rodi Courie 18/04/2012 Pietiläinen KH et coll. : Does dieting make you fat ? A twin study. Int J Obesity, 2012 ; 36 : 456–464
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    18 avril 2012 3 18 /04 /avril /2012 14:09

    The Silent Time Bomb Now Affecting 1 in 54 Boys in the US


     

     

     

     

     

    Story at-a-glance

     

    • According to the most recent statistics, an average of 1 in 88 children is now diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This number represents a 78 percent increase in autism over the past five years.
    • ASDs are nearly five times more common among boys than girls
    • Research is now clearly showing that environmental factors play a primary role in the epidemic of autism spectrum diseases. Toxic overload appears to be at the core of the problem
    • Possible environmental factors for autism are incredibly diverse and include excessive exposure to electromagnetic radiation, mercury toxicity, vaccine damage, phthalates and other common household chemicals, vitamin D deficiency, and brain toxicity stemming from gut toxicity
    • In children with Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS), toxicity flowing from their gut throughout their bodies and into their brains literally clogs the brain with toxicity, preventing it from performing its normal function and processing sensory information. Inexpensive tests can identify GAPS within the first weeks of your baby's life, which can help you make better-informed decisions about how to proceed to set your child on the path to a healthy life

     

    By Dr. Mercola

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has announced that 1 in 88 children in the U.S. are now diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)i .

    The number represents a 23 percent increase in the last two years and 78 percent in the past five years.

    But that was just the average—the numbers were much greater for Hispanics (110 percent) and black children (91 percent).

    The study, published in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reportii , also found that ASDs are nearly five times more common among boys than girls.

    Broken down, the numbers equate to 1 in 54 boys with ASDs, and 1 in 252 girls. The updated estimates are based on data collected in 14 American communities during 2008.

    These communities comprised over eight percent of all American 8-year-olds that year. Interestingly, the number of children with ASDs varied widely from site to site.

    The highest prevalence was found in Utah, where a staggering 1 in 47 eight-year-olds were identified with some form of ASD.

    New Jersey was also far higher than the average, with 1 in 49iii . What's really going on here?

    WHAT is Causing the Skyrocketing Increase in Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Personally, I don't see how anyone can look at a 78 percent increase of any health problem in a mere five years without snapping to attention. Prior to the CDC's announcement, the Canary Party, a citizens' action group on autism, rightfully predicted that the CDC would downplay the seriousness of these latest statistics.

    On its new autism webpage, the CDC state they suspect some of the increase "is due to greater awareness and better identification" among some of the children.

    But even taking that possibility into consideration, the statistics are truly shocking. How can one in 88 American children have some form of autistic disorder? In a normal, healthy environment, that just shouldn't happen. And the fact that it IS happening demands our immediate attention. Something is going very wrong, very fast...

    While many are focusing their efforts on nailing down one culprit or another—vaccines being the perfect example—I believe taking such a narrow-minded approach can be extremely counterproductive. In my view, what we're seeing here is the culmination of what amounts to a perfect storm...

    Research is now clearly showing that environmental factors play a primary role in the epidemic of autism spectrum disorders. But which environmental factors are to blame?

    While vaccines have borne the brunt of people's suspicions, there's plenty of evidence suggesting there are multiple factors at play. The factor that prevents us from writing vaccines off as being harmless is the fact that toxic overload appears to be at the core of the problem, and many vaccines do indeed contribute to a child's overall toxic load. So while it's probably unreasonable to blame vaccines alone for the rapid rise in autism, it would be just as unreasonable to ignore their impact, and continue on with the one-fits-all vaccination policy as if everything is a-okay.

    The majority of autism cases do appear to result from the activation or "expression," of a number of different genes, along with multiple epigenetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the traits of autism. But science is increasingly showing us just how malleable our genes are—they continuously respond to their environment, meaning, your body and everything you put into and onto it... Furthermore, there's no shortage of evidence that toxins of different sorts can wreak havoc with brain function. Add to this the more recent findings that your gut is profoundly influential for brain health, and a picture of toxic overload combined with inadequate nutrition comes into clear view.

    Why We Must Insist on Invoking the Precautionary Principle

    If multiple toxic exposures and poor nutrition is to blame, then trying to tease out "the" primary culprit will get us nowhere. I believe we must tackle the issue of ASD with a much wider aim, and that is to reduce ALL toxic exposure and improve nutrition. This tactic includes but is not limited to reducing the vaccine load, especially in the US where children receive the most vaccines of any country on the planet. I believe it's imperative to invoke the precautionary principle with respects to vaccines, and, at the very least, allow people to opt out if they so choose.

    While vaccine advocates tend to stress the importance of so-called "herd immunity," saying the vaccine will not work unless the majority is vaccinated, there's a great price to pay by forcing everyone into a one-size-fits-all mold.

    Not only are some children at greater risk for vaccine damage than others (which I'll review in a moment), but we also eliminate the ability to evaluate the health risks of vaccinations if no one is allowed to opt out. We NEED to conduct comparison studies to evaluate the health outcomes of vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, yet such studies are not done. An oft-cited reason for that is that it would be unethical to not vaccinate certain children... But this is not really a reasonable excuse today, as many parents want to opt out of one or more vaccines for their children.

    Environmental Factors that May Play a Role in Autism

    When looking into the possible environmental factors for autism, they are incredibly diverse. The following is just a short list of examples:

    •  Electromagnetic fields: Work by Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt suggests there are distinct correlations between a woman's exposure to electromagnetic fields during pregnancy and her child's neurological functioning. He found that if you sleep in strong electromagnetic fields during pregnancy, your child will likely begin to exhibit neurological abnormalities within the first two years of life, such as neurological dysfunction, hyperactivity, and learning disorders.
    • In 2007, this theory received additional support from a study published in the Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicineiv . It presented the theory that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from cell phones, cell towers, Wi-Fi devices and other similar wireless technologies may work in conjunction with genetic and environmental factors, becoming an accelerating factor in autism. After more than five years of research on children with autism they found that EMR negatively affects cell membranes, allowing heavy metal toxins, which are associated with autism, to build up.
      To learn more about the science of HOW electromagnetic radiation affects and harms your body, please review this previous article featuring Dr. Martin Blank. 
    •  Mercury toxicity: It is already an established fact that exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions -- all similar to traits defining, or associated with autism. Mercury pollution is widespread from the burning of fossil fuels, but the use of thimerosal-containing vaccines and dental amalgams—both of which contain mercury—also cannot be overlooked as major sources of individual exposure to this neurotoxin
    •  Vaccines: A 2011 reviewv of the peer-reviewed, published studies on autism (going all the way back to 1943) revealed numerous documented cases of autism caused by encephalitis following vaccination. There are many potential vaccine-related culprits, including the use of toxic adjuvants; the presence of human DNA in vaccines; and the increasing number of vaccines given in a short period of time
    •  Phthalates: Research from 2009 discovered that infants who lived in homes with vinyl floors were twice as likely to have autism five years later, compared to those with wood or linoleum flooring. Vinyl floors can emit chemicals called phthalates, which are widely used plastic softeners found in much more than just vinyl flooring. Hairsprays, perfumes, cosmetics, toys, shower curtains, wood finishers, lubricants, certain medical devices and more all contain phthalates. Researchers have suggested the chemicals may contribute to autism by disrupting hormones not only in small children but also in the womb
    •  Vitamin D Deficiency: There is also a link between rampant vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and the proportionate jump in autism, which has been highlighted by Dr. John Cannellvi . The vitamin D receptor appears in a wide variety of brain tissue early in the fetal development, and activated vitamin D receptors increase nerve growth in your brain

    Neurologist Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride recently shared a common thread that may be linking these and other environmental factors together, namely brain toxicity stemming from gut toxicity, otherwise known as Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS). She cured her own son of autism using an all-natural treatment involving dietary changes and detoxification, and her hypothesis is in my view one of the most elegant.

    GAPS: An Elegant Explanation of the Roots of Autism

    Dr. Campbell-McBride is convinced that autistic children are born with perfectly normal brains and sensory organs, but that abnormal gut flora, passed on from their mother and father, leads to devastating gut and brain toxicity. In children with Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS), toxicity flowing from their gut throughout their bodies and into their brains, literally clogs the brain with toxicity, preventing it from performing its normal function and processing sensory information.

     

     

    Total Video Length: 1:13:21

    Download Interview Transcript

    But what leads to such devastatingly abnormal gut flora?

    Dr. Campbell discovered that a large percentage of mothers of autistic children were bottle-fed. Then, as they received many courses of antibiotics throughout their childhood, they developed increasingly worse abnormalities in their gut flora, which in turn was passed on to their children. Add to that a diet of processed foods and the use of birth control pills, and the damage to a woman's gut flora deepens even further, and each generation quickly gets worse and worse, unless active remediation is undertaken. According to Dr. Campbell-McBride:

    "Many of these modern factors created a whole plethora of young ladies in our modern world who have got quite deeply abnormal gut flora by the time they are ready to have their first child."

    Vaccination Policy is Oftentimes the "Straw that Breaks the Camel's Back"

    Dr. Campbell-McBride's book Gut and Psychology Syndrome contains an entire chapter outlining what health care professionals need to do to improve the vaccination strategy, because the standard vaccination protocol is bound to damage GAPS babies.

    She explains:

    "It's a matter of the last straw breaking the camel's back. If the child is damaged enough, the vaccine can provide that last straw. But if it doesn't provide that last straw in a particular child, then it will get the child closer to the breaking point."

    Fortunately, it's possible to rather inexpensively identify GAPS within the first weeks of your baby's life, which can help you make better-informed decisions about vaccinations, and about how to proceed to set your child on the path to a healthy life. The entire process for identifying children who would be at risk for developing autism from a vaccine is described in her book, but to sum it up, in her practice she starts out by collecting a complete health history of the parents, and their gut health is assessed. Then, within the first few days of life, the stool of the child can be analyzed to determine the state of her gut flora, followed by a urine test to check for metabolites, which can give you a picture of the state of your child's immune system.

    These tests are available in most laboratories around the world and cost a very reasonable amount, about $80-100 per test -- peanuts compared to the incredible expense of treating an autistic child once the damage is done.

    In my view it is absolutely VITAL to perform this analysis BEFORE you consider vaccinating your child. If the test results are normal the likelihood of autism after vaccines is dramatically reduced. As Dr. Campbell-McBride states, she has yet to find an autistic child with normal bowel flora. If you find that your baby has abnormal gut microflora, or begins to develop symptoms of autism a year or two later, the GAPS program should be started immediately, as the younger the child is when you start the treatment, the better the results. The child should not be given any vaccines until their microflora tests normal. For more information about the GAPS Nutritional Program, including the two types of GAPS diets, and the importance of fermented foods, please review this previous article.

    Thoughts on Reversing the Trajectory of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Autism is a complex condition with many contributing factors and it takes a multi-faceted approach to treat it. We're now also beginning to understand it requires a multi-faceted approach to prevent it. Hopefully, more people will begin to take Dr. Campbell-McBride's information to heart and put it to practice so that more children may be spared from the get-go. But even that's not going far enough. We must tackle this problem from all angles, and that also includes:

    • Reduce your and your child's toxic burden: This includes avoiding as many dangerous chemicals as possible, which makes listing the do's and don'ts virtually impossible. There's just too many. As a general rule though, eating whole organic foods will go a long way, as that automatically cuts out processed foods and related chemicals, genetically engineered foods, and artificial sweeteners.
    • Also be careful with the personal care products you use, as well as your household cleaning products and home building materials and furnishings... Opting for "green" and/or organic alternatives will help reduce many of the toxins most people encounter on a daily basis.
      Do whatever you can to establish a toxin-free environment for your whole family, and then establish a detoxification program. Please remember hidden toxins like mold and fluoride. The book, Our Toxic World: A Wake Up Call, by Dr. Doris Rapp is an excellent resource if you're unsure of how or where to start. 
    • Lower the EMF burden in your home, especially in your bedrooms.
    • Carefully review the vaccination issue, including the conventional vaccination schedule, and know that in most U.S. states you still have the right to opt out of vaccines.
    •  Avoid pasteurized milk; it's an absolute imperative to the treatment of autism. Anyone managing this illness without restricting milk is deceiving themselves. This includes all milk products, such as ice cream, yogurt and whey. Even natural flavorings in food must be avoided unless the processor can guarantee that caseinate is not included.
    • Complete elimination of sugar/fructose, juice, soda, French fries and wheat (pasta, bagels, cereal, pretzels, etc) is also highly recommended.
    • Get proper sun exposure. It is my personal belief that vitamin D deficiency in conjunction with damaged gut flora may be two of the most significant contributing factors to autism. Optimizing your vitamin D levels and your gut flora during pregnancy appears to be the most important prevention strategies discovered to date.

    References:

    1. i Centers for Disease Control March 29, 2012
    1. ii Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008, March 30, 2012 / 61(SS03);1-19
    1. iii ADDM Report 2012
    2. iv Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine. Vol. 26 No.2 (August 2007) pages 3-7
    3. v Journal of Immunotoxicology 2011; 8(1): 68–79
    4. vi The Vitamin D Council, Patient friendly summary on autism

    Posted By Dr. Mercola | April 17 2012 

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    18 avril 2012 3 18 /04 /avril /2012 09:39

    « The Lancet Oncology a publié les résultats intéressants d'un essai thérapeutique avec des ultrasons à haute densité pour des patients présentant des petites tumeurs, puisqu'au bout d'un an 95% des hommes ne présentaient plus de lésions cancéreuses, avec un taux de complications nettement inférieur à celui de la chirurgie ».

    « l'essai, mené sous l'égide du Medical Research Council en Grande-Bretagne, porte sur 41 hommes âgés de 45 à 80 ans, atteints d'une tumeur de petite taille, ayant un taux de PSA faible (inférieur à 15 ng/ml) et un score de Gleason faible (marqueur de l'agressivité tumorale) ».

    « Tous ont subi entre juin 2007 et juin 2010 un traitement par ultrasons de haute intensité, par voie intrarectale, sous anesthésie générale, avec repérage de la tumeur à travers l'imagerie par résonance magnétique nucléaire ».

    « si cette procédure est déjà utilisée, y compris en France, c'est la première fois qu'une évaluation rigoureuse est publiée dans une revue scientifique de haut niveau. Les résultats sont prometteurs ».

    « au bout de 12 mois de traitement, 95% (39 sur 41) des hommes ne présentaient plus de cellules cancéreuses à la biopsie (4 ont subi une seconde cure par ultrasons au bout de 6 mois). Surtout, aucun cas d'incontinence urinaire n'a été à déplorer dans ce groupe. 10% des hommes traités ont eu des difficultés d'érection, un taux moindre qu'après une intervention radicale ».

    Le Dr Ashim Ahmed (université du Collège de Londres), responsable de l'essai, déclare : « Nous avons apporté la «preuve du concept». Il reste maintenant à développer un essai à plus large échelle et de plus longue durée, avant de proposer une telle stratégie en pratique courante ».

    De son côté, le Pr Guy Vallancien (chirurgien urologue, Institut mutualiste Montsouris), pour qui « ces traitements focaux ont un grand avenir », remarque : « Nous avons traité déjà plus de 120 patients avec de tels ultrasons, sans incidence sur l'incontinence et la sexualité. Cela représente un changement radical de stratégie, avec le traitement d'un premier foyer s'il est limité, et d'autres ultérieurs si nécessaire. D'où l'intérêt, contrairement à l'avis récent de la HAS, de faire un diagnostic précoce ».

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    17 avril 2012 2 17 /04 /avril /2012 07:41
    L'exposition prénatale à un air pollué affecte le comportement de l’enfant L’exposition prénatale aux hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) aurait un impact sur le comportement des enfants à l’âge de 6-7 ans, selon une étude réalisée à New York par une équipe de chercheurs de l’université Columbia. Cette même équipe avait déjà montré les conséquences délétères d’une telle exposition chez l’enfant
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