Parasitol Res. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]
The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.
Biodiversity and Climate Change Center (BiK-F), Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, 60325, Germany.
The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good-if at all-efficacy in vivo.
PMID: 21110041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Exp Parasitol. 2010 Oct;126(2):191-7. Epub 2010 May 4.
Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second-stage larvae in vitro and in vivo.
Unidade de Helmintologia e Malacologia Médicas/UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. firstname.lastname@example.org
The anthelmintic activity of extracts from Chenopodiumambrosioides, Pycnanthusangolensis and Nutridesintox was in vitro and in vivo investigated, against Toxocaracanis larvae. The in vitro assays results showed that the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox was the most effective, followed by C. ambrosioides extracts, hexane, dichloromethane and the infusion. P. angolensis extracts showed a lower anthelmintic activity compared to the other natural products. For the in vivo assays, Nutridesintox, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were administered orally to T. canis-infected mice, in single doses, during three consecutive days. The efficacy was evaluated on the 17th day post-infection, not only by counting T. canis larvae in the tissues but also by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The different treatments did not reduce the larvae burden and had no influence on the antibodies dynamic. Interestingly, a reduction on the inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. In conclusion, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides is of further research interest, as it showed an anthelmintic activity in vitro and a reduction on the inflammatory reaction produced by the infection of T. canis larvae in vivo.Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20447397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]