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Minerals, trace elements, Vit. D and bone health European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) 66, 1323–1328; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.169; published online 24 October 2012 Minerals, trace elements, Vit. D and bone health Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and markers of insulin resistance in a Japanese working population N M Pham1, S Akter1, K Kurotani1, A Nanri1, M Sato2, H Hayabuchi3, K Yasuda4 and T Mizoue1 1Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Clinical Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan 2Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 3Faculty of Human Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, Fukuoka, Japan 4Department of Metabolic Disorder, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Correspondence: Dr NM Pham, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Clinical Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Toyama 1-21-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan. E-mail: pham@ri.ncgm.go.jp Received 12 March 2012; Revised 17 August 2012; Accepted 28 September 2012 Advance online publication 24 October 2012 Background/Objectives: The association between vitamin D status and insulin resistance (IR) has been less studied among Asians, and it remains elusive whether calcium could modify such an association. We examined the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with IR markers and the potential effect modification by calcium intake among a Japanese population. Subjects/Methods: The authors analyzed data (n=494) from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 among a Japanese working population aged 20–68 years. Fasting serum 25(OH)D and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose were determined, and homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Calcium intake was assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was done with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results: Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly inversely associated with 25(OH)D concentration across quartiles of 25(OH)D after fully adjusting for covariates (Ptrend=0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Across clinically relevant categories of 25(OH)D, compared with participants in the vitamin D sufficiency group, those in the vitamin D insufficiency group had a 5% higher HOMA-IR score, and those in the hypovitaminosis D group had an 18% higher HOMA-IR score (Ptrend=0.01). In an analysis by calcium intake, the HOMA-IR score was highest among participants with both a low calcium intake and lowest 25(OH)D concentrations, with significant inverse trend being observed in the group with lower calcium intake (Ptrend=0.02). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with IR among Japanese adults. Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; insulin; glucose; insulin resistance

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