European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 514–519; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.8; published online 16 February 2011
Divergent anti-inflammatory effects of different oil acute consumption on healthy individuals
N Papageorgiou1,2, D Tousoulis1,2, T Psaltopoulou1, A Giolis1, C Antoniades1, E Tsiamis1, A Miliou1, K Toutouzas1, G Siasos1 and C Stefanadis1
11st Cardiology Unit, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece
Correspondence: Dr D Tousoulis, Cardiology Unit, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Vasilissis Sofias 114, Athens 115 28, Greece. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received 1 August 2010; Revised 13 December 2010; Accepted 9 January 2011; Published online 16 February 2011.
Background/Objectives: Inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are implicated in atherogenesis. In addition, several types of oil as part of different types of diet are associated with the initiation of atherosclerosis and consequently with the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the exact role of oil consumption on vascular inflammation remains unknown. In this parallel study, we assessed the acute effects of extra virgin olive oil, soy oil, corn oil and cod liver oil on circulating soluble(s) forms of adhesion molecules and TNF-α.
Subjects/Methods: In all, 67 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 50 ml of oil. Soluble forms of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline and at 3 h post oil consumption.
Results: All types of oil had no significant effect on soluble VCAM-1 levels (P=nonsignificant (NS) for all). On the contrary, all oil types decreased ICAM-1 levels (P<0.01). Olive oil (P<0.05), soy oil and cod liver oil (P<0.01 for both) reduced TNF-α levels significantly, in contrast to corn oil, which induced a nonsignificant decrease (P=NS). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the absolute change in ICAM-1 and TNF-α levels (ρ=0.379, P<0.05), but not between the absolute changes in VCAM-1 and TNF-α levels (ρ=0.019, P=NS).
Conclusions: Acute consumption of all types of oil decreased significantly ICAM-1 levels.
In addition, olive oil, soy oil and cod liver oil decreased significantly TNF-α levels.
Moreover, the absolute change in TNF-α levels was correlated with the absolute change in ICAM-1 levels.
These findings indicate that acute consumption of specific types of oil is associated with specific significant anti-inflammatory effects.
Keywords: oil; ICAM-1; VCAM-1; TNF-α; inflammation