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Innate immune recognition of the microbiota promotes host-microbial symbiosis Hiutung Chu & Sarkis K Mazmanian AffiliationsCorresponding author Nature Immunology 14, 668–675 (2013) doi:10.1038/ni.2635 Received 08 April 2013 Accepted 02 May 2013 Published online 18 June 2013 Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are traditionally known to sense microbial molecules during infection to initiate inflammatory responses. However, ligands for PRRs are not exclusive to pathogens and are abundantly produced by the resident microbiota during normal colonization. Mechanism(s) that underlie this paradox have remained unclear. Recent studies reveal that gut bacterial ligands from the microbiota signal through PRRs to promote development of host tissue and the immune system, and protection from disease. Evidence from both invertebrate and vertebrate models reveals that innate immune receptors are required to promote long-term colonization by the microbiota. 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