(Il existe un séro diagnostic)
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2010 Dec;27(4):613-620.
[Diagnosis of human toxocarosis.]
[Article in Spanish]
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.
PMID: 21308204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 Jan 17;173(3):186-9.
[Article in Danish]
Afdeling for Bakteriologi, Mykologi og Parasitologi, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 København S, Denmark. RUN@ssi.dk
The clinical presentation of toxocariasis, a zoonotic parasitosis transmitted from dogs and cats to humans, can be very diverse, which is one of the reasons why Toxocara-related disease may go unnoticed. This paper gives a brief summary of the various clinical presentations (covert/common toxocariasis, visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocariasis and neurotoxocariasis), diagnostic and differential-diagnostic considerations as well as treatment and prevention. In brief, the diagnosis of human toxocariasis relies mainly on patient data, anamnestic information, symptoms, eosinophil count and total-IgE levels.
PMID: 21241625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wiad Parazytol. 2010;56(2):117-24.
[The spread of nematodes from Toxocara genus in the world].
Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefańskiego, Polska Akademia Nauk, ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818, Warszawa. firstname.lastname@example.org
Twenty seven species belong to the genus Toxocara. Most of the species infect Carnivora from families: Canidae, Felidae, Viverridae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Herpestidae. The most widespread species are: T. canis, T. cati and T. vitulorum. The life cycle of Toxocara spp. is connected with young animals and adults with the lowered immune response. Three of the Toxocara species: T. canis, T. cati and T. pteropodis are the aetiological agents of human toxocariasis.
PMID: 20707295 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2010 Oct;2(4):267-70. Epub 2010 Aug 20.
A case of recurrent toxocariasis presenting with urticaria.
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Human toxocariasis is the most prevalent helminthiasis in Korea and other industrialized countries. The clinical features of toxocariasis are diverse, according to the involved organ. Typically, Toxocara spp. infection is easily treated with 400 mg albendazole twice a day for 5 days. However, we experienced a case of recurrent toxocariasis that was refractory to this standard therapy and presented with urticaria, an uncommon symptom in toxocariasis. A 35-year-old male visited our emergency room because of abdominal pain. He had recently consumed raw cow liver (3 weeks prior to presentation). Laboratory analyses revealed eosinophilia (1,612 cells/µL) and increased total IgE (3,060 IU/mL). Chest X-ray showed multiple lung nodules in both lungs, and computed tomography revealed multiple ground-glass opacities in both lungs and multiple tiny liver abscesses. Liver biopsy revealed an eosinophilic abscess. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay findings for Toxocara antigens were positive (optical density, 2.140), leading to a diagnosis of toxocariasis. We initiated a 5-day treatment with albendazole and prednisolone; however, 6 days after completing the treatment, the patient again experienced urticaria and severe itching that could not be controlled by antihistamines or hydrocortisone cream. A second bout of eosinophilia suggested recurring toxocariasis, for which we prescribed a second round of albendazole. Despite an initial improvement in his symptoms, the patient returned after 6 weeks complaining of abdominal pain for 6 hours, which was reminiscent of his first attack; he also exhibited eosinophilia. Accordingly, albendazole was administered once more for an additional 3 weeks, and his symptoms resolved.